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    Title: 轉型正義在第三波民主化國家之發展 : 以西班牙, 捷克, 斯洛維尼亞和臺灣為例
    Other Titles: The developments of transitional justice in the third wave democracies : case studies of Spain, Czech, Slovenia and Taiwan
    Authors: 陳韋達;Chen, Wei-Ta
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    郭秋慶;Kuo, Chiu-Ching
    Keywords: 轉型正義;第三波民主化;淨化法;佛朗哥;歷史記憶法;二二八事件;白色恐怖;Transitional justice;Third wave of democratization;lustration;Francisco Franco;Historical Memory Law;228 Incident;white terror
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 10:36:38 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 第三波民主化始於1974年葡萄牙康乃馨革命,很快地民主化的浪潮席捲全球,成為一個全球性的浪潮。在康乃馨革命後的15年間,全球約有30個國家轉型成為民主體制,此外至少還有數十個國家受到衝擊。1980年代末期,第三波民主化達到高潮,蘇聯與南斯拉夫聯邦相繼解體,共產主義在歐洲吹起了熄燈號。民主化的浪潮,也讓台灣在1987年解除長達38年的戒嚴,政府大幅度放寬對人民政治權利的限制。在一連串的政治改革下完成總統直選,和之後的政黨輪替。

    第三波民主化讓許多國家轉型成為民主體制,這一波是史上規模最大的民主化。如何面對過去,成為新興民主國家面臨到的問題,這讓轉型正義一詞出現。轉型正義不止是民主轉型的問題,也是之後民主鞏固的根基。本文以西班牙、捷克以及斯洛維尼亞等第三波民主化的歐洲國家,來與台灣做比較。前述三個歐洲國家分別代表著歐洲不同區域、不同獨裁體制和不同的轉型模式,相同的是這些國家先後加入歐盟,成為一個受到認可的民主國家。因此,本文希望以這些國家在民主轉型的經驗,來探討對於轉型正義的影響,以及進行轉型正義的背景。最後討論我國在民主化後對於轉型正義的措施,從而與文中所列舉之國家進行比較,省思台灣在轉型正義的作為,並探討歐洲國家的經驗是否有值得借鏡之處。

    根據本研究可以發現,轉型正義具有普世性的價值,在文中的四個國家至今皆在轉型正義上或多或少的進行,不過每個國家皆有不同的發展。因此也讓此研究呈現一個多元化的現象,每個國家會基於自身政治發展的不同,形成不同模式轉型正義的樣貌。在台灣是一種處理受害者,卻對加害者無一著墨的情形,因此這也是我們台灣在民主化之下的未竟之業。
    The Third wave of democratization started since the “Carnation Revolution” of Portugal in 1974 and swiftly impacted the world. During the 15 years after Carnation Revolution, there have been more than 30 countries undergone a democratization transition, and at least 10 countries more were impacted. In late 1980s, the collapsed of USSR and SFRY pushed the Third wave reached its climax, and Communism was dead in Europe. In Taiwan, the goverment abolished the martial law which had been promulgated for 38 years in 1987, and significantly loosen the restrictions on people’s political rights, got political reform step by step under democracy’s third wave.

    Many countries have embraced the democracy during the Third wave of democratization, which was the largest scale ever. With the democratization completed, came along the “transitional justice” issue that the newly democratization countries must confront with. Transitional justice is not only the question of democratization, but also is the foundation of democracy consolidation. This thesis uses Spain, Czech, Slovenia and Taiwan as case studies; they are selected because these 3 European countries represent 3 different areas, dictatorships and democracy transition in Europe, but they still share a common trait as members of EU now. It shows that their democratization is recognized by EU. Hence, with this thesis, I would like to discuss the effect of the transitional justice and its background by the above mentioned countries as case studies. And finally with Taiwan’s experience of transitional justice to compare with the 3 European countries mentioned in the thesis, and conclude if there is any valuable lesson worth refers to.

    According to the analysis, transitional justice is a universal value. The 4 countries have doing transi-tional justice much or few to now, but different country has different developing model. So the result of the thesis shows a wide range of diversity, since every country will show a diverse appearance by differ-ent political development. It is to deal with victims but don’t care about perpetrators in Taiwan, so it is also Taiwan’s unfinished work after democratization.
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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