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    題名: 查韋斯政府的石油外交研究 : 以美國與中國為例
    其他題名: Hugo Chávez government's oil diplomacy : evidence from United States and China
    作者: 邱蘭晴;Chiu, Lan-Ching
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    熊建成
    關鍵詞: 委內瑞拉;查韋斯;石油;Venezuela;Hugo Chávez;Oil
    日期: 2012
    上傳時間: 2013-04-13 10:35:49 (UTC+8)
    摘要:   查韋斯於2005年始提出二十一世紀社會主義理論。該理論的目標是以人為本、改善拉丁美洲地區長期以來處於低度發展的情況、解決區域內不公不義的現象及加強區域內一體化的發展。對於查韋斯而言,委內瑞拉的石油不但是國家主權獨立的象徵,同時亦應用於國際政治中重要的地緣政治武器。因此,查韋斯上台後,便積極展開石油改革計畫,強化對國內石油產業的控制權,重整委內瑞拉國營石油公司,並利用石油收入進行社會發展計畫。

      1999年,查韋斯提出「委內瑞拉的國家經濟與社會發展計畫」,計畫中提到委內瑞拉面臨的挑戰有:分散國家的經濟出口,同時處理社會問題,並提升窮人的地位。而發展計畫同時列出五項外交政策的主要目標:提倡多極化世界、促進拉美整合、鞏固並多元化委內瑞拉的外交關係、提倡新的西半球安全體系以及強化委內瑞拉於世界經濟的地位。

      對中國而言,為了要維持穩定的發展,石油的需求就必須非常充分;因為它是每個工業化國家賴以生存發展的重要命脈。因此,石油供給來源就必須要穩定且多元化。本文採取質性歷史研究法與文獻分析法,透過現實主義與新自由主義兩項研究途徑,深入探討中國是否因為國際政治與經濟情勢的差異,採取不同的外交戰略模式?另外將務實與理論並重,描繪查韋斯石油外交的未來展望。並以歷史發展來陳述政策並依據經濟及社會數據,針對前述問題做討論。
    In 2005, Chávez proposed Twenty-First Century Socialism. The purpose is to promote human rights, change the low developed situation in Latin America and integrate Latin America countries. To Chávez, the oil is not only the symbol of independence of national sovereignty, but also a useful geopolitical weapon in the field of international politics. Therefore, Chávez began his oil reformation: strengthen the state control to the oil industry, reorganize the national oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, PDVSA, and use the income to facilitate the social policy.

      The outlines of Venezuela’s development policy are laid down in the new Constitution, introduced by the Chávez government in 1999, as well as in the National Economic and Social Development Plan for 2001-2007, which defines the principal challenges facing the country as (i) the need to diversify its economy and (ii) to deal with social challenges and the rise in poverty. The development plan lists five main objectives for its foreign policy as: (i)promote multi-polarity, (ii)promote Latin American integration, (iii)consolidate and diversity Venezuela’s foreign relations, (iv)promote a new regime of hemispheric security, (v)strengthen Venezuela’s position in the international economy.

      To China, in order to sustain the stable development, the demand of oil which is the critical natural resource for each industrialized country must be sufficient. On the other hand, the origin of oil has to be stable and diversified. This paper conducts a qualitative study of China’s oil diplomacy using both historical and document analysis approaches. The consistency of this stratagem is further dissected through realism and Neo-liberalism studies. The goal is to outline the future prospects of Chávez’s oil diplomacy based on theories and facts. Then will present the historical development of the policies implanted by Chávez based on economic and social data.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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