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    題名: 中肯21世紀經貿關係 : 北京能源外交之例外
    其他題名: Sino-Kenyan economic relations in the 21st century : an exception to Beijing's oil diplomacy
    作者: 楊昌恩;Yang, Chang-En
    貢獻者: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
    林中斌
    關鍵詞: 中國;肯亞;非洲;石油;能源外交;中非關係;東非;China;Kenya;Africa;Oil;Oil Diplomacy;Sino-African Relations;East Africa
    日期: 2012
    上傳時間: 2013-04-13 10:35:35 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 自2000年中非合作論壇成立以來,中國對非洲提供的各式援助逐年擴大,以換取該地區豐富的自然資源,尤其引起西方國家關注,使得中非關係躍上檯面,成為國際關係研究顯學。近十年來之研究多從資源(尤指石油)戰略為出發點討論中非關係。的確,中國與非交往之一大面向為獲取能源,然獲取能源只是中非交往中的諸多面向之一,並非唯一。因此若單以能源需求為討論基礎恐怕將忽視中國在非洲其他面向之作為,進而影響評論中國在非洲發展之全面考量。

    中國與肯亞的經濟發展需求有可以彼此互補的地方。中國對肯亞出口以農業機具、製造、藥品、民生用品等為主;而肯亞對中國出口的商品多為原物料,包括茶、咖啡、礦物等等。由於肯亞不是石油產油國,一般外界認為中國與非洲交往著眼於石油的批評,在中國-肯亞的貿易交往不能完全適用。另在影響方面,中國從孔子學院開始,接連將其新聞媒體和文化出版總部設於奈洛比,說有意將肯亞打造成為非洲的中國媒體文化中心或許有點冒險,但是要說奈洛比是中國在非洲的媒體文化營運據點應該是合宜的。

    最後,肯亞的出口對中國市場並未形成依賴。肯亞出口國家以非洲地區為主,其次為歐洲,再來才是亞洲地區。中國與肯亞的經濟往來似乎不符合新殖民主義之特徵,肯亞的進出口貿易對中國經濟並未形成依賴,而中國也並未透過國際市場和價格形成壟斷,讓肯亞對其經濟依賴。在未來發展助力上,中肯官方關係良好,都有意深化雙方經貿關係;另外,歐債危機讓依賴歐盟市場的肯亞可能選擇將風險分散,拓展亞洲市場和出口機會,提高國家面對國際經濟情勢的應變能力。中國經濟成長趨緩以及東非區域仍舊不穩定則可能會讓中國與肯亞的交往受到負面影響。未來中肯雙方在加強非傳統合作及區域反恐可能會有更多作為。
    China’s various types of aids to Africa have been increasing in trade of Africa’s abundant resources since the establishment of the Forum On China-Africa Cooperation in 2000. The concern from some western countries has made the Sino-African relations more popular in the field of international relations. For a decade the Sino-African relations is studied in a sense of oil strategy, which does play a role. Somehow, to obtain energy is not the only one but of one of the aspects of Beijing’s diplomacy toward Africa. The overemphasis on Beijing’s thirst for oil will overlook other aspects of Beijing’s African diplomacy that could misjudge China’s development as a whole picture.

    China’s economic needs are complementary to Kenya’s. China’s exports to Kenya are mainly agricultural machinery, medicine, and living goods; Kenya exports materials such as tea, coffee and mineral resources. Since Kenya is not an oil-produced country, criticism on China’s engagement with Africa bears energy cause cannot be fully applied to Sino-Kenyan economic relations. From the perspective of influence, China has established its culture, publication and media headquarters in Nairobi. It might be an overstatement that China has the intention to make Kenya the center of Chinese media and culture in Africa, but to say that Nairobi is the hub of Chinese media and culture in Africa should be appropriate.


    Kenya’s export does not rely on the Chinese market. Africa takes the first destination of Kenya’s export, Europe the second, and Asia the third. The economic relations between China and Kenya do not go with the features of neo-colonialism. Kenya’s economy does not depend on China’s; also, China didn’t manipulate the international market and price to corner Kenya’s economy. There are several advantages for the development of Sino-Kenyan relations. The two governments are in a benign relationship and intend to deepen economic cooperation. Besides, the debt crisis in the Eurozone worried Kenya that it has decided to develop Asian market and seek opportunities to export to Asia, hoping to strengthen its capabilities when facing the uncertain international economic conditions. However, the slowdown of China’s economic growth and the uncertainty of the East Africa might become obstacles in Sino-Kenyan relations. In the future the two governments might seek more cooperation in the fields of anti-terrorism and climate change.
    顯示於類別:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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