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    Title: 國家民主化之國際社會化研究 : 臺灣, 貝南與保加利亞的比較分析
    Other Titles: Democratic socialization of state : a comparative analysis of Taiwan, Benin and Bulgaria
    Authors: 徐子軒;Hsu, Lucian, T. H.
    Contributors: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所博士班
    王高成
    Keywords: 民主化;社會化;國際關係理論;比較政治;科際整合;democratization;Socialization;IR theory;Comparative politics;Interdisciplinary Integration
    Date: 2012
    Abstract: 社會化是國際關係理論中逐漸興起且成長迅速的概念,也是建構主義理論的中心思維。本研究將民主化視為是一種複合的社會化過程:在所謂民主轉型的階段,觸發民主化的機制多是菁英之間的策略評估,以工具理性計算;而在民主鞏固的階段,推動民主化的機制則屬於角色扮演或是規範說服。

    本研究所提出之民主社會化,乃是一個外因(國際力量主導的全球化)和內因(國內力量主導的政治變革)互動的過程。內在機制的發育主要與國家的政治文化傳統、經濟發展和社會結構的變遷相適應;而國際因素主要扮演一國政治民主化的塑造者和推動者的角色。通過對一國民主化的動因分析,本研究認為,外因在許多時候(甚至是關鍵時候)起了重要作用,同時也要注意,內因對外因有傳導、過濾作用。外因主要包括霸權因素、區域整合以及各種非國家行為體等,這些外部因素通過一定的管道作用於一國國內政治結構,推動國內公民社會、政黨體制以及民主政治文化的變遷,由此使得改革不斷發展,達到民主鞏固與民主深化。

    最後,本研究發現台灣、貝南與保加利亞仍處於民主轉型的後期階段,這是由於國家/社會的行為邏輯,並未從後果邏輯轉向適當邏輯所致。進一步來說,是三國內部的公民社會發展尚嫌稚嫩,台灣未來需轉向規範遵循與身分認同,民主才能得到真正的鞏固。
    Socialization, the central core of constructivism, is a growing and flourishing concept in the field of international relations theory. In this plan, democratization is viewed as a complex socialization process. Hence, in the phase of democratic transition, democratization is often manipulated by political elites for preserving national interests as well as maintaining their personal interests. Namely, the trigger mechanism is called strategic calculation. On the other hand, in phase of democracy consolidation, democratization is based on the internalization of norms and values. Generally, trigger mechanisms should include either role playing or normative suasion there.

    In the study of democratization, both democratic transition and consolidation scholars often ignore the impact of international aspect. But in the globalization era, every force, such as state actors, international organizations or regimes, global culture, transnational advocacy networks and NGO, are very important to the new wave of democratization. This study therefore uses the new approach called democratic socialization, which combine the theories of compliance and socialization and democratization, to analyze how Taiwan could entry the period of democratic transition and consolidation. The approach view democratic institution as an international norm so that a country follows this norm, then democracy will be happened. To compare with Taiwan, Benin and Bulgaria are democratizing as the control group. According to this study, Benin is forced by the material persuasion of external force; Bulgaria is persuaded of the conditionality of EU and Taiwan is acculturated by the global culture and social learning from the persuasion of external force.

    Although the three governments sought to improve the development of democracy in the past two decades, they still stay between the stages of democracy transition and democracy consolidation on nowadays. The current political situation in the three counties could attribute to the fact that the action of the state did not follow the logic of consequence. Therefore, in order to advance their political situation, it is necessary for the three governments to relocate national policies and emphasize the function of norms and identity by as the logic of appropriateness.
    Appears in Collections:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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