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    題名: 德國與聯合國安全理事會改革之研究(1998-2012)
    其他題名: Study on Germany and the reform of the United Nations Security Council (1998-2012)
    作者: 黃如萱;Huang, Ru-Syuan
    貢獻者: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
    李大中;Li, Da-Jung
    關鍵詞: 德國外交政策;聯合國安理會改革;施洛德;梅克爾;常任理事國;German foreign policy;the Reform of UNSC;Gerhard Schroder;Angela Merkel;permanent member in UNSC
    日期: 2013
    上傳時間: 2013-04-13 10:34:33 (UTC+8)
    摘要:   二戰後,德國以戰敗國承擔大部分的歷史責任,為獲得國際社會認同,呈現出「親西方政策」、「多邊主義」、「克制文化」等外交政策之原則,美蘇對峙但德國居間還能左右逢源,最終實現兩德再統一。鞏固聯合國架構下的多邊制度主義一直是德國外交與安全政策之基礎,而由安理會主導維持國際和平與安全的任務,目前國際體系已與安理會剛成立時大不相同,使產生其改革聲浪。德國統一後剛好具備推動安理會改革的客觀條件。
      德國展現文明強權的風範,曾被喻為最有實力角逐安理會常任理事國的國家,長期以來擔任聯合國經費的主要貢獻國。當安理會面臨代表性、正當性以及功能性的抨擊時,德國則表示有意顯承擔更多國際責任。德國受到「拉扎里計畫」與「高階小組報告書」兩份文件的影響,使她特別關注安理會規模與組成的問題。影響德國推動安理會改革的國際因素中,本文從五常、義大利和歐盟來切入;而內部因素可從民意和政黨間來檢視。
      施洛德執政之初,對外雖然宣稱爭取常任理事國並非德國的優先目標,但已開始籌組四國集團,為安理會擴大尋找盟友提高勝選的機會。2003年伊拉克戰爭後,美國從此不再正面回應是否支持德國爭常。四國集團所提出「6常任+4非常任」的建議,曾一度被外界看好。梅克爾上任以來,先後於2005聯合施政宣言與2007年的聯大演說中提及安理會改革需要憑借德國的力量來實現。後來改革談判一直無法有所突破,德國政府逐漸減低其爭常的意願,甚至更支持以「歐盟(歐洲)席次」來追求常任理事國。有別於四國集團的其他成員,德國傾向支持改革朝向過渡途徑來發展,此途徑原本被外界認為是突破改革的契機。其擴大方案歷經多年莫衷一是,不過目前(2012年)四國集團尚未解散。
      經由過往的文獻本文可從德國外交、聯合國中的德國、安理會改革的德國三層次中,歸納出德國和安理會改革之關聯性。
    As a defeated state in the Second World War, Germany needed to take the most historical responsibility to return to the international society.  Adopting foreign policies such as Westpolitik, multilateralism , culture of power-political restraint and so forth, German gained advantage from east-west conflict , and, thereby, was able to achieve reunification. Foreign & security policy in German is primarily built on the multilateralism under the United Nations(UN) framework. United Nations Security Council (UNSC)is in charge of the maintenance of international peace and security, but the international system has completely changed comparing to the situation when UNSC was founded. German was ready to attempt to the UNSC reform after the reunification.

    As model of Civil Powers and being long-term main contributor to the UN budget, German has been in the forefront of an attempt to become new permanent member.
    German has stated that it is willing to take international responsibility when the UNSC faces the problems of representation, democracy, transparency and accountability. Affected by the Razali Plan and High Level Panel Report, German was motivated to pay close attention to “size and categories of membership.” This study aims to explain how German persuaded the UNSC reform from the perspective of considering Permanent 5, Italy and Europe Union as external factors and considering the German public opinion and amid parties as internal factors.

    The early stage of Gerhard Schroder time, he did not serve permanent seat gaining as priority, but ambitious plan Group of four(G4)for SC expansion more. Since 2003 Iraq war , US has never clearly answered whether she supports German in permanent seat or not. The proposal of “six permanent and four non permanent seats” from the G4, had a bright prospect of winning passage of the SC reform. After Angela Merkel took office, she has stated that the SC reform could go forward by German’s participation in coalition treaty in 2005 and Opening Debate of General Assembly in 2007. Because the reform negotiations have not made progress for years, the German government gradually lost her desire to pursue this goal and turn to support “European seat” instead. Germany suggested that the reform could work by transitional approach whereas other members of G4 opposed. Although the idea of SC expansion is unable to reach an agreement, G4 still remains in 2012.

    Base on the literature, this study includes three levels: German diplomacy , Germany in UN and Germany to the SC reform. From these points the research could sum up the relation of German and the SC reform.
    顯示於類別:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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