美國總統大選的戰略設定，隨著時空背景的不同在議題與執行策略上有所差異，但兩黨各異的意識形態所產生的基本政策立場與訴求，往往在面對相似狀況時，師法前人的戰略設定亦可視為美國總統大選兩黨政治的特色之一。制定選舉戰略的前提，除了傳統的兩黨立場與既有優勢之外，更需要依據候選人的特質，找出適當的戰略目標以及使用戰術，搭配適合當下大環境的政見議題與運用成功的宣傳戰術傳達訊息訴求，才能發揮選舉戰略的整體功效，獲得勝選。 Election, a process that determines who gains power, is the most important operating mechanism in a democratic polity. This study aims to explore the campaign strategies in the American presidential election, understand how the tactics, issues, propaganda involved influence the electorate, and analyze the evolution of and the differences in the campaign strategies.
In the eight American presidential elections from 1980 to 2008, there are three aspects that are of particular importance to study the campaign strategies and goals:
1.Issues of diplomacy, economy and ideology. 2.How propaganda and the media affect the candidates’ personal image and the electoral result. 3.The strategies of and their influence on the winner.
Due to different backgrounds, there are of course differences in the issues debated and strategies used in the American presidential elections. One of the characteristics of the American two-party system, however, is that the two parties tend to follow the strategies adopted before when they face similar situations.
The campaign strategy has to take into account not only the respective standpoints and advantages of the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, but also the personality of the candidates. Only with proper strategies, tactics, suitable issues and successful propaganda can the candidates exert influences and win the election.