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    Title: 從防制電信詐欺犯罪探討兩岸司法互助之研究
    Other Titles: A study on cross-strait mutual legal assistance from the prevention against telefraud crimes
    Authors: 林青瑾;Lin, Ching-Jin
    Contributors: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士在職專班
    曾復生;何思因;Tzeng, Fuh-Wen;Ho, Szu-yin
    Keywords: 司法互助;司法互助協議;跨境犯罪;電信詐欺犯罪;Mutual legal assistance;Mutual legal assistance agreements;Cross-border crimes;Telefraud crimes
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 10:34:24 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 由於科技的快速發展與全球化的影響,犯罪行為已不再侷限在單一國家內,往往是跨越國境進行,因此,為查緝該等跨境犯罪行為,各國均以簽訂條約或協定方式進行司法互助,藉以合作打擊犯罪。而兩岸,由於歷史、經濟、人文及地理等因素同質性高,自1987年開放交流,之後再陸續開放小三通、大三通,兩岸交通更為便捷,自然衍生跨境犯罪行為,如兩岸走私、販毒、人口販運、擄人勒索及洗錢等犯罪行為,加上網路、電信科技的發展,傳統詐欺犯罪行為逐漸演變成新興型態的跨境電信詐欺犯罪,其影響層面廣泛、被害人數眾多,非我國或中國大陸司法機關能夠獨自進行查緝。另外,1990年開始,由於臺灣經濟已高速發展,各類型犯罪不斷衍生且手法與技術更為提升,從詐欺犯罪的發展歷史來看,傳統詐欺大都以數人的小型聚合或單打獨鬥,且必須與受害者面對面直接接觸才有機會得逞,如買賣詐欺、冒貸詐欺、票據詐欺、訴訟詐欺等。2000年之後,由於民營金融機構的開放及電信事業的民營化,金融及電信業者競爭激烈,為了廣泛招攬客戶而開放申請標準,以致虛設金融帳戶、盜拷電話充斥。另外,電子通訊的發達、網際網路的普遍化,加上兩岸經貿的頻繁交流,對集團性的詐欺犯罪形成有利的條件,致使信用卡詐欺、提款機詐欺、手機電話詐欺、網路詐欺等新興詐欺犯罪型態不斷推陳出新,造成整體社會治安日益惡化。此種新型態之詐欺犯罪以組織集團方式,輔以精密的科技器材,利用人類的同情心、信任感及貪懶天性等心理弱點,進行訛詐錢財,加上兩岸分治的特殊關係,造成該等犯罪集團不易查緝,此種利潤豐厚、破獲率低、刑度低之犯罪,且受害者不分性別、年齡、階級、身份,廣布全國各地,並使被害人的身家財產受到嚴重的危害及損失,已經造成近來兩岸社會治安的重大隱憂。
    是故,兩岸進行司法互助並合作打擊犯罪是維護兩岸人民生命、財產、安全與維護社會治安、公平、正義之方式。有幸,兩岸政府能暫時擱置主權爭議,於2009年4月26日簽署「海峽兩岸共同打擊犯罪及司法互助協議」,為兩岸合作打擊犯罪建立制度化合作平臺、確立兩岸司法互助之依據,不僅可以維護兩岸民眾權益,更能伸張社會正義與強化司法威信,惟透過防制電信詐欺犯罪之案例發現,該協議內容尚有不足,如司法互助項目較國際司法互助慣例欠缺、多為框架性、原則性規定,相對粗淺以及港、澳未納入司法互助範圍等;而在實務運作上亦有困難之處,如司法制度差異未有配套措施及聯繫管道無法暢通等。凡此種種,尚待兩岸政府持續協商、改進,以確保兩岸人民應有權益,共創雙贏。
    本論文的內容,主要分為7章,第1章為緒論,說明本論文研究動機、目的、架構與研究限制等。第2章為國際刑事司法互助之概念與理論,說明國際刑事司法互助之概念、沿革、原則、型態,以求對國際司法互助之理論與現行作法有普遍性之瞭解,並依此檢視我國目前參與國際司法互助之困境與阻礙。第3章為兩岸刑事司法互助的歷程、現況及成效,從 1990年兩岸簽署之「金門協議」至2009年第三次江陳會談簽署的「海峽兩岸共同打擊犯罪及司法互助協議」,透過分析兩岸司法互助之歷程與現況,推論未來兩岸司法互助之發展。第4章電信詐欺犯罪之探討與分析,說明電信詐欺之成因、發展、特性、類型、運作模式及影響層面,與我國防制電信詐欺犯罪之政策。第5章是兩岸刑事司法互助案例分析,列舉近年兩岸司法互助所偵破之電信詐欺案件為例,從兩岸司法互助之實務案例中,探討現有兩岸司法互助之功能與侷限,並藉以研析未來兩岸司法互助如何進行有效改善與完備。第6章為兩岸刑事司法互助之功能與侷限,說明兩岸現有司法互助協議制度之功能與侷限。第7章為結論,綜整前述6章內容,做出研究心得與建議,企盼提供相關單位研擬兩岸司法互助未來發展之參考。
    Due to the rapid development of science and technology and the influence of globalization, criminal behavior was no longer confined within a single country, it often happened across borders. Therefore, in order to investigate such crimes, countries were to sign treaties or agreements on mutual legal assistance to co-operation in combating crime.
    As far as the cross-strait was concerned, because of historical、 economic、 cultural and geographical factors were highly homogeneous, it was natural for people dwell two sides to commit cross-border crimes such as smuggling、drug trafficking、 human trafficking、kidnappings、extortion and money-laundering as the communication was more and more convenient since the opening of exchange in 1987 and then to link with postal, trade and transport. Besides, followed the development of Internet and telecommunications technology, the traditional fraud crimes gradually evolved into emerging patterns of cross-border telecommunications fraud crime, it had the great impact on the two sides and the large number of victims. Those crimes were not Taiwanese or Chinese judiciary could carry out the investigation alone. In addition, Taiwan''s economy had been prosperous from the beginning of 1990 and various types of derivative crime and further enhanced their techniques and technologies as well.
    From the historical viewpoint of development of the different fraud crimes, most of the traditional fraud was small party or one person alone to cheat and must be face to face with the victims for the sake of a chance to succeed, such as fraudulent trading, illegal loans、fraudulent bills and litigation fraud, etc. After 21st century, financial institutions and telecom industry competed intensely for their liberalization and privatization. In order to widely solicit customers, they lowered the application criteria, but it resulted in many dummy financial accounts and pirated copy telephones. In addition, advancement of electronic communications、 prevalence of the Internet and the frequency cross-strait economic and trade exchanges, it became favorable for fraud criminals to form a group to innovate their fraud crimes in the field of credit card fraud、 ATM fraud、mobile phone fraud and Internet fraud to deteriorate the safety of whole society. This new type of fraud crime was organized by a gang and it was supported by sophisticated technology equipments to take advantage of natural weakness including human compassion、 a sense of trust 、greed and laziness to deceive wealth. Furthermore, the special relationship between the two sides caused difficult investigation of these criminal groups. This kind of the fraud crime was high profitable、light punishment and very hard to solve, and the victims suffered from heavy property loss regardless of gender, age, class, identity were widely distributed throughout the country. It had really affected the major worries of the social order.
    Therefore, cross-strait mutual legal assistance and cooperation in the fight against crimes was a good way to safeguard on both sides of people life、property、social order, fairness and justice. Fortunately, the two governments shelved the dispute over sovereignty, and signed "cross-strait joint fight against crime and mutual legal assistance agreement on April 26, 2009, to establish standard cooperation platform and set up the basis for cross-strait mutual legal assistance. It not only protected the rights and interests of people on both sides, but also strengthened more social justice and the judicial prestige. However, found via the prevention of telecommunications fraud crime cases, the contents of the agreement were still insufficient, such as the lack of mutual legal assistance items compared to the international mutual legal assistance items、regulations of framework and principle、relatively superficial view and Hong Kong, Macao were not included in the range of mutual legal assistance. It was difficult in practical operation as well, such as the differences in the judicial system were failed to support and contacting channels did not work smoothly. All cases mentioned above need two governments to negotiate constantly to ensure the rights of the people on both sides and create a win-win situation.
    The contents of this paper is divided into seven chapters, Chapter 1 is an introduction to illustrate the motivation、purpose、framework and limitation of the study. Chapter 2 is the concept and theory of international judicial co-operation in criminal to highlight the concept、 history、 principle and pattern to have a general understanding of them and to check the obstacle and barrier of our government to participate in international mutual legal assistance. Chapter 3 is the progress、current situation and achievement of cross-strait mutual legal assistance, from the「 Kinmen Agreement」signed by the two sides in 1990 to 2009 Third Chiang-Chen talks to sign 「two sides of the Taiwan Strait to jointly battle with crime and mutual legal assistance agreement」to analyze the past and the present situation of cross-strait mutual legal assistance and to infer the future development of it. Chapter 4 is discussion and analysis of telecom fraud crime to explain the cause、development、characteristic、type、mode of operation and the level of effect and the policy of protecting telecommunications fraud crime. Chapter 5 is the case study of cross-strait mutual assistance in criminal justice, cited in recent years. From the practical case of the cross-strait mutual legal assistance, people can explore the function and limitation of the existing cross-strait mutual legal assistance and research the how to effectively improve mutual legal assistance in the future. Chapter 6 is the function and limitation of cross-strait mutual assistance in criminal justice, to illustrate the two sides of the existing system of mutual legal assistance agreement in great detail. Chapter 7 is the conclusion, integrating all foregoing chapters to make research ideas and suggestions. It my hope to provide the relevant units with the reference of the future development of cross-strait mutual legal assistance.
    Appears in Collections:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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