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    Title: 德國梅克爾政府中國政策之轉變
    Other Titles: The shift of Angela Merkel’s China policy
    Authors: 劉昭廷;Liu, Chao-Ting
    Contributors: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
    林中斌;Lin, Chong-Pin
    Keywords: 德國;中國;梅克爾;德中關係;德美關係;接見達賴;Germany;China;Angela Merkel;Sino-German relations;German-U.S. relations;Dalai-Lama
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 10:34:19 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 梅克爾於2005年當選成為德國第一位女性總理,其強悍的作風,被時代雜誌稱為是歐盟實質的總統。作為女性、出生東德、學習物理等背景引起各界矚目。

    作為在野黨領導人時,梅克爾多次批評施洛德的中國政策,認為在施洛德的領導之下,德國為了經濟利益犧牲對人權的堅持;反對協助美國出兵伊拉克更破壞長久以來德美的友好關係。因此在初上任時,即強調修復德美關係,雖然就職宣言中強調對中國仍保持德國政府長期以來的連貫性,但出訪中國時開始提出敏感議題,令中國方面感受到新政府的中國政策將有所調整。

    2007年9月23日,梅克爾不顧中國強烈施壓而與達賴喇嘛於總理府會面,中國取消一連串原定行程以示抗議,德國聯邦議會黨團更發表「亞洲新戰略」決議,表示德國在亞洲區域將加強與日本、印度等民主國家的聯繫以防堵中國,德中關係被譽為是有史以來最低點,也顯示出梅克爾對於中國採價值觀取向之外交政策。在外交部長史坦邁爾的努力下,德中於2008年1月恢復正常關係。在2008至2009全球金融風暴的籠罩之下,德中發表共同聲明,雙方關係更加緊密。2010年更進一步建立「全面推進戰略夥伴關係」,於2011年舉行中德間政府磋商論壇。德國在梅克爾的領導下,與中國關係的緊密程度已超越施洛德時期,也與初上任時大為不同。

    本論文對於梅克爾擔任總理期間的政治、經貿與文化作三方面的回顧並加以分析,政治方面更對德美關係作出概述,得出其中國政策轉變之國際、國內與個人因素。隨著中國政治、經濟實力的崛起,向來強調民主、自由、人權等價值觀取向的梅克爾在擔任總理後,透過對於政治事務的實際參與累積經驗,已超越意識形態與理想主義,回到俾斯麥當時所立下的REALPOLITIK(現實政治),以德國國家利益為主要捍衛核心,調整其對中國之政策。
    Angela Merkel was elected as the first female Chancellor of Germany since 2005. She has been named as the de facto president of Europe from TIME MAGEZINE because of her tough leading style. Being a woman, born in East Germany, studying physics, those backgrounds own her extensive attention.

    As an opposition party leader, Merkel has criticized Schroder’s China policy and indicated that Germany has sacrificed Human Rights while pursuing economic benefits. German-U.S relation was also broken because of Schroder’s anti-Iraq war attitude.

    Therefore, Angela Merkel emphasized that to repair the relations between Germany and the U.S. is the prior task when she made her inaugural speech.

    To maintain the coherence china policy also takes an important part, however, during her first official visit to China, she stated some sensitive issues toward China and made China found that Germany’s China policy has already changed.

    23th Sep. 2007, Angela Merkel met Dalai-Lama in Federal Chancellor’s Office despite the seriously pressure from China. China cancelled a series of official meeting schedules as revenge. At the same time, CDU/CSU Union issued “Asia as strategic challenge and chance for Germany and Europe” to regard China as a competitor and should reinforce the link with democracy countries in Pacific-Asia like India, Japan and Australia, in advanced, to prevent the threat of China rising. This resolution shows the new government’s value oriented foreign policy. The relations between Germany and China have never been so worse.

    Sino-German relations have normalized and been back on the track with Foreign Minister Steinmeier’s efforts in January 2008. The world has been under financial crisis from 2008 to 2009, Germany and China issued a joint statement showing their determination to recover world economy. The both countries also built “Comprehensive strategic partnership” in 2010, held inter-governmental talks in 2011. The relations between Germany and China are different from 2005 and have even exceeded Schroder government under Merkel’s leading.

    This Thesis is trying to review and analyze the relations between Germany and China from political, economic and cultural aspects. In political aspect, German-U.S. relations are also included. From the three aspects analysis indicate the international, domestic and individual factors of German’s China policy shift.

    After being a chancellor, participating and accumulating experience in politic affairs, realpolitik leads her beyond ideology and realism while china rising. Angela Merkel regards national interest as the top priority and adjusts her China policy.
    Appears in Collections:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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