「國防轉型」的概念為國軍建軍備戰的主軸，其出發點應該是本諸「專業」，並取法美方從「基於威脅」轉向「基於能力」的精神，對我國現有的國防軍事事務進行全面性的改造精進。近年來，國軍持續依據敵情威脅變化及軍事戰略構想，進行兵力規模的縮減與部隊編組型態的調整，就是國防轉型的主要任務之一。 我國憲兵的任務依其性質可區分為軍事性的「首都衛戍」和「警衛勤務」以及警察性的「警備治安」和「軍(司)法警察」。前者所面臨主要的挑戰是中共的「斬首戰略」；而後者的威脅則是全球性的「恐怖攻擊」。屬於傳統安全的斬首戰首重城鎮戰的攻防，非傳統安全的重點則在於反恐的角色和災防的定位。 檢討憲兵面臨之挑戰，建構一支符合國防需要、具備作戰能力且可快速反制中共「斬首戰」等戰術戰法之武力，同時又能成為國家發生重大危機時，依據相關法令配合政府決策，可迅速投入反恐、災防等「非軍事作戰任務」的憲兵部隊，如此方能成功完成「保衛國家安全」與「安定社會秩序」之轉型目標。 Defense Transformation is the core concept of modern-day R.O.C. military development. This concept is based on professionalism and also follows U.S. military which is transforming from Threat Based to Capabilities-Based development. The goal is an overall reformation of current defene and military affairs in Taiwan. In the recent years R.O.C. military is continuously downsizing the number of the troops and reforming its organization structure based on various enemy threats and defence strategy, which is also one of the main targets of Defense Transformation. The mission of R.O.C. Military Police can be categorized into two types: one is to defend the capital city; the other is to keep pubic order and execute martial law. The former is facing the threat from P.R.C’s Decapitation strategy, while the later deals with the global terrorism. Anti-Decapitation mission emphasizes on the attack and defence strategy in urban warfare, which falls in the realm of traditional national security. On the other hand the non-traditional role of MP focuses on Anti-Terrorism as well as disaster relief mission. This study will review the modern-day challenge for R.O.C. MP that aims to develop a force which can fulfil defence requirement, combat capability, and quick-response to Anti-Decapitation strategy. During national crisis MP should also be able to participate in non-military mission like Anti-Terrorism as well as disaster relief mission based on the law and government policy. As a result R.O.C. MP can successfully achieve its Defense Transformation target for defending national security and maintaining pubic order.