In 1949, the Republic of China government moved to Taiwan, and the People''s Republic of China was formally established. Since then, the governments of two sides of Taiwan strait started the competitive process of "one China".
In order to maintain the orthodox position, Chiang Kai-Shek and Chiang Ching-Kuo firmly hold the "one China" position. After Lee Teng-Hui took over, he focused on the pursuit and establishment of the sovereign status of Taiwan, although did not clearly express that giving up the "one China" position, and set up National Unification Council to promote related policies in the presidential palace, but Lee also introduced the "one country, two governments", "one country, two entities (political entities) " and" one country, two districts" claims, and expressed that the relation between the two sides is "special state-to-state relations" (two-state theory). After the change of ruling party, ruled by Chen Shui-Bian, he positioned the "one China" as a topic which may discussed in the future and terminated the operation of National Unification Council, then put forward the "one country on each side" and "four yes one no" statements and to promoted referendum related to the issues, gradually forwarded toward the direction of Taiwan independence. 2008, the second change of ruling party occurred, Ma Ying-Jeou advocated to "recognize the ’1992 consensus’ and ’one China’ "as the basic of promoting the Mainland (China) Policy, and explaining the connotation of "one country, two zone" in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of China and Article 11 of the Constitution of the Republic of China Additional Articles; moreover, assisted by the senior staffs within the party, Ma made a substantial increase in the pace of development of cross-strait relations but set aside the sensitive political (unifying) issues.
Comparing to the changes of Taipei, Beijing did not show significant change on the insistence of "one China", merely presents a gradual relaxation on the evolution of recognition of the status of Taiwan; furthermore, after Deng Xiao-Ping put forward the "one country, two systems" policy and delimited Taiwan as a Special administrative region, the policy orientation remained unanimous by Chinese leaders until today.
The United States’ influence is the most important external factors. In the competitive process of Kuomintang and the Communists, the United States has always played an important role by various means.
The feature of this article is studying the evolution of cross-strait relations within the core issue of "one China", carrying on a inter-temporal analysis through supplemented by changes in the economy, trade, military and other related events.