波蘭（Republic of Poland/ Rzeczpospolita Polska）是中東歐中第一個成立「非共化」政府的國家，爾後這股民主化浪潮如同骨牌效應般在中東歐其他國家散佈開來。在前共黨政權垮台且波蘭前共黨在1989年總統大選失利之後，權力被剝奪，財產被沒收，黨員遭整肅，影響力大為銳減。但是波蘭的社會民主黨(Socjaldemokracja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej，簡稱SdRP)在改組後，與其他左派政黨組成「民主左派聯盟」(Democratic Left Alliance/ Soyusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD)，在1991年的波蘭國會大選中得票率僅次於民主聯盟(Democratic Union)，並在1993年9月國會大選中獲得勝利。
本研究探討波蘭前共黨轉型的困境、問題、挑戰與契機，而在深入研究發現後，前共黨具有靈活的適應能力，並且能夠融入民主憲政之多黨體制，善用民眾對於民主政府施政的不滿，轉而為自己的支持者，藉而再次在政治上發揮影響力。 Poland (Republic of Poland / Rzeczpospolita Polska) is the first country that set up a "past-communism" government in Central and Eastern Europe. After this, the trend of democratization, like a domino effect, spread throughout other countries in Central and Eastern Europe. After the collapse of the communist regime and the failure of the former communist party at the presidential election in 1989, their political power and property were deprived; members scattered; influence greatly waned.
Poland''s Social Democratic Party (Socjaldemokracja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej referred SdRP) underwent huge reorganization. They formed "Democratic Left Alliance "(Democratic Left Alliance / Soyusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) with the other left parties. The congressional election in 1991, SLD''s percentage of vote was second to Democratic Alliance (Democratic Union), and then they gained victory in another congressional election in September 1993.
This study investigates the plight, problems, challenges, opportunities and transition of Polish former communist. The research shows, the former communist party had flexible adaptability, and could be integrated into the multi-party system in the democratic constitution. They used people''s discontent with the policy of democratic government and transformed it into support for themselves. By this way they seized the influence in political circles again.