2001年阿富汗戰爭是以美國為首的北約聯軍，在2001年10月7日起對阿富汗蓋達組織 (Al-Qaeda)與塔利班(Taliban)的一場戰爭，911事件後，美國以打擊恐怖主義為由發動了對阿富汗的進攻，反恐成為全球關注的一個焦點，阿富汗及其周邊地區更成為世界關注的焦點。本論文主要是在探討蘇聯撤軍阿富汗之後雙方關係發展，筆者認為1989年蘇聯撤軍阿富汗後，俄羅斯對阿富汗國家事務的介入程度由深至淺，911事件開創兩國關係的新局面，雙方合作面向擴大，俄羅斯在阿富汗事務上也進行了多邊框架的國際合作，根據本人的觀察顯示，俄阿雙方正慢慢趨向正常且平等的關係發展，俄羅斯改採不同於前蘇聯時期的方式，以合作化解衝突之方式與阿富汗交往。本文試圖從俄羅斯對外政策與其國家利益、國家安全、地緣政治的相互關係，建構出國家利益是對外政策的投射，並據此討論雙方關係，故研究目的除了說明阿富汗對俄羅斯戰略之重要性，亦探討蘇聯解體前後俄阿關係、塔利班政權建立前後俄阿關係、911事件後俄羅斯對外政策之轉變與俄阿關係。 After the September 11 attacks , the US-led NATO coalition invaded Afghanistan, with the goal of dismantling the al-Qaeda terrorist organization and removing the Taliban regime. Counter-terrorism became a focus of global concern. Afghanistan and its surrounding areas have become the focus of world attention. The thesis is to explore the Russian-Afghan relations after Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989. In my view, after Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, the Russia''s intervention in Afghanistan''s state affairs was diminishing. The 11 September attacks created a new situation between the two countries in two ways, the extended dimensions of bilateral cooperation and a multilateral framework of international cooperation. The relations between Russia and Afghanistan was slowly tending to a normal and equal development. Different from the former Soviet-era method, the way of Russia''s dealing with Afghanistan has changed from conflict to cooperation. This paper attempts to explore the connections between Russia''s foreign policy and its national interests, national security and geopolitical environment and use this pattern to analyze Russian-Afghan relations. The research purpose is to explore the Russian-Afghan relations before and after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the development of Russian-Afghan relations before and after the foundation of the Taliban regime, and the transformation of Russia''s foreign policy towards Afghanistan after September 11 attacks.