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    Title: 公路收費問題與中國大陸農產品物流之研究
    Other Titles: The research of toll road fee problem and Mainland China's agricultural product logistics
    Authors: 廖奕傑;Liao, Yi-Jie
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班
    李志強;Lee, Chi-Kung
    Keywords: 收費公路;尋租;農產品物流;物流成本;反公地悲劇;toll road;rent seeking;agricultural product logistics;logistics Cost;tragedy of the anti-commons
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 10:32:10 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 從2001年到2011年間,中國大陸的蔬菜價格上漲了116.8%,且產地與銷地間的價格差距過大,則顯示了物流成本過高的現象。世界銀行2007年的報告指出,中國大陸的高速公路通行費平均每公里0.12~0.21美元,是全世界道路通行負擔最高的國家。因此,收費公路被許多人認為是造成高農產品物流成本的主要原因;但公路經營者同時反駁農產品物流結構問題才是物流成本提高的主因,並主張農產品免收通行費政策實施後價格沒有降低便是最好的證明。到底收費公路是否促成了農產品物流的成長,目前還是一個爭議。

    因此,本研究蒐集相關資料,透過文獻分析法進行研究,欲了解下述設定問題:
    1.造成中國大陸收費公路收費過高的原因
    2.影響收費公路改革政策成敗的結構因素
    3.中國大陸農產品物流在現存環境與結構下的困境
    4.收費公路因素在現有農產品物流環境與結構下的影響

    經過分析後,本研究發現:
    1. 中國的公路收費過高現象,大部分源自於為滿足地方政府的財政需求、官員的尋租,所導致的資金挪用行為加上為績效而進行的重複建設,為應付其增加的支出而提高。且該狀況在管理者與執法單位獲利權分散的狀況下形成更為嚴重的反公地悲劇的現象。
    2.中央政府推出的改革政策,因涉及地方利益的損害與執行能力的問題,因此難以有效的在地方上推行。
    3.由於其他運輸部門的缺陷,因此中國的農產品運輸體系大部份透過公路部門運行;農產品物流結構大部分仍停留在透過批發市場進行的階段,其造成的結果是中間成本難以降低,且運輸效率難以提高,低溫物流率不高的狀況更使損壞率無法降低。
    4.道路通行在農產品物流的限制下被進一步放大,低利潤促使改善運輸與低溫設備的產業升級難以進行,貨運業者只能透過超載、逃費、減少低溫運輸,以解決所面臨的反公地悲劇困境;超載則造成公路養護成本提高。在現有結構限制下,油價上漲抵銷生鮮農產品免收通行費政策所降低的成本。
    Mainland China''s vegetable prices rose by 116.8 percent from 2001 to 2011, and the price gap between the origin and pin ground is too large, then the high cost of logistics phenomenon. The 2007 World Bank report pointed out that Mainland China''s highway tolls per km 0.12 to $ 0.21, the highest burden of road traffic in the world''s countries. Therefore, the toll road is many people believe that is causing the main reason of the high cost of agricultural products logistics; refute the issue of agricultural logistics structure is the major logistics costs to improve the highway operators and advocates to farmers free of tolls after the implementation of the policy prices did not reduce it is the best proof. In the end whether toll roads contributed to the growth of the logistics of agricultural products, is still a controversial.
    Therefore, this study is to collect relevant information, through literature analysis For the following settings:
    1. Causing excessive Mainland China’s toll road charges
    2. Structural factors that affect the success or failure of the reform policies of the toll road
    3. Plight of Mainland China''s agricultural products logistics in the existing environment and structure
    4. Toll road factors in the logistics environment and the structure of the existing agricultural
    After analysis, this study found:
    1. Mainland China road charges excessively high level, most from embezzlements of funds in order to meet the financial needs of the local government officials of rent-seeking, the result plus for performance and redundant construction, to cope with its increased spending increased. And the situation is more serious conditions of managers and law enforcement unit profit is decentralized tragedy of the commons phenomenon.
    2. Reform policies introduced by the central government, due to the problem of damage to local interests and the ability to execute, it is difficult to effective local implementation.
    3. Due to other defects of the transport sector, most of China''s agricultural products transportation system running through the road sector; most of the agricultural logistics structure is still at the stage through the wholesale market, its result is difficult to reduce the cost of the middle and the transport difficult to improve the efficiency of the high rate of low-temperature logistics situation can not reduce the damage rate.

    4. Road traffic restrictions in agricultural logistics further amplification, are difficult to the low profits procure improve the transport and industrial upgrading of the cryogenic equipment, freight industry only through overloading, evasion, reduce cold chain, to solve the face of the anti-commons tragic plight; overload caused by raising the cost of road maintenance. Existing structural constraints, rising oil prices offset fresh agricultural products to reduce the cost of the toll policy waived
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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