|摘要: ||始自哲學史的啟蒙時代，「真實」與「再現」的爭論就一直是被大量的討論議題，不同哲學學派所切入的觀點都各有不同，然而其論點都建立於柏拉圖（Platon）所提出的洞穴說之上。柏拉圖認為藝術品或真實之複本都侷限了真實的可能性。也因為此論述，人們開始對真實的概念提出疑慮，同時該論述也奠定了第一個永恆真實及這個充滿表象的世界之間的差異性。 |
再者，笛卡兒(Descartes)於十七世紀時提出了對外在世界是否存在的質疑，在他的形上學沈思錄中提到 :人的感知並不能定義一切外在的事物 。我門必須經由內省及沈思來瞭解並証實我們的存在，而進一步地給予外在事物與自體間的相關性，所以他提出了「我思故我在」的這個哲學脈絡。另外一位愛爾蘭哲學家柏克萊則認為，外在的一切之所以存在是因為人的感知，存再就是被感知或去感知(Etre est etre percu et percevoir)。有此我們可以得知，在哲學史上，真實與再現這個議題不斷地被各派哲學家提出來討論，而因為社會的發展演進，這個論述也隨著時代的變化被給予不同的註解，國際情境學者德波(Debord)處在大戰後媒體資訊爆炸的時代，更提出了社會背景觀化的嚴厲指控，他認為，真實已經被拍攝、被影像化，而幕後的推手，就是當時盛行的資本主義。反之，布希亞則提出了真實已不存在這個驚人的論述。他認為所有的外在事物及所謂真實已經不存在，因為一切在資本主義的催化下，已經被擬象並仿真化，我們已經進入一個超真實的時代。更因為如此，美國好萊塢導演華卓斯基(Wachowski)兄弟以此論點作出發，拍製了駭客任務三部曲(Matrix trilogy)，讓我們看到所謂的擬仿真實，反之，布希亞並不推崇此電影更對該電影提出嚴厲的指控，認為該電影表現出來的觀點扭曲了他的理論。
Since the beginning of philosophy history, the discussion between « Reality » and its « representation » has always been an issue which is broadly discussed by different schools. Even some of the philosophers think this issue between these two ideas can be studied separately as two different categories. However, this concept of reality and its representation is originally an idea that developed by Plato in his masterpiece: « Republic » in which he talks about the art craft as a prototype or a representation of the reality. He also proclaims that these representations of reality are actually the limits of itself. Therefore, the status of reality is questionable by this concept platonic which also introduces the first cutting point of this issue between this intangible reality and on the other hand this world full of representation.
Moreover, Descartes is one of the most famous philosophers in 17th century who have the doubt about the reliability of the world surrounding us. He suggests that the world can be just an illusion, which created by an evil genie to deceive us. Descartes thinks that we can’t only depend on our feelings to judge the face of reality, it has to be something more profound. Hence, he announces his famous physical statement: « cogito » (I think therefore I am.). Yet, another Irish philosopher, Berkeley, makes a statement totally opposite from Descartes, he thinks that the world surrounds us is perceived by our feelings: « esse est percipi » ("to be is to be perceived"). Above are two different theories about reality and representation of the world we live in but with the change and progress of time and our society, this discussion has developed wildly. Guy Debord, a French situationist international, criticized severely the development of capitalism, which provokes a phenomenon of consuming by manipulating greatly the mass media. This causes an alienation and individualism in the society. Eventually our society becomes a society of the spectacle, a place full of representations. From here we can see that reality has been replaced by the spectacle according to Debord, but Baudriallrd, French postmodern philosopher hold a different point of view. He postulates that there’s no more reality because our world has been simulated. This philosopher also criticized the invasion of capitalism by making the statement of that we live in a society without truth but with a total simulation even more real than the reality, a hyperreality. This theory inspired greatly the directors of Hollywood, brothers Wachowski. They made a series of movie, which talks about this concept of Baudrillard, the Matrix trilogy. Surprisingly, Baudrillard is more offended than flattered by these movies. He called these movies of Wachowskis: « misunderstandings ». Therefore, this thesis is going to focus on studying the theory of a book that was written by Baudrillard, “Simulation and Simulacra” in order to understand the concept of “the desert of truth, the disappearing of the reality.” Firstly, in the thesis we are going to talk generally and historically about the development of the concept of reality and its representation. Secondly, the studies of the main concept of Baudrillard, in “Simulation and Simulacra” will be carefully demonstrated. Thirdly, comparing the differences between the concept of Debord and Baudrillad. Finally, the thesis will be ended with the reason and explanations of misunderstanding in Matrix from Baudrillard’s point of view.