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    题名: Merleau-Ponty : lecteur de Cézanne
    其它题名: 梅洛龐蒂 : 塞尚的讀者
    Merleau-ponty : reader of cézanne
    作者: 楊依寧;Yang, I-Ning
    贡献者: 淡江大學法國語文學系碩士班
    林春明
    关键词: 自然;現象;可見;不可見;精神;知覺;再現;深度;空間;nature;Perception;sensation;Space;spirit;Representation;Phenomenon;visible;invisible;espace;esprit;Représentation;phénomène;visible;invisible
    日期: 2012
    上传时间: 2013-04-13 10:28:53 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本論文以梅洛龐蒂的著作《眼與心》為主要的研究核心。《眼與心》觸及的方向非常廣泛,包含亨利米修的詩以及幾位重要畫家:保羅塞尚、保羅克利與畢卡索。其中最為經典的部份乃是梅洛龐蒂將自己的哲學思想與保羅塞尚的畫作做結合,因此,另一著作《塞尚的疑惑》也成為本論文重要的研究方向。從《知覺現象學》、《可見與不可見》到《眼與心》這三本著作,皆可察覺塞尚在梅洛龐蒂的哲學系統中有其重要的意涵。他探求自然內在的本質與塞尚一生在作畫中所追求的目標如出一轍,塞尚的畫作正是以自然為主要的題材。兩人所追尋的正如塞尚所言:「自然存在於內部」,因此,本論文也以此為開端。
      本論文分成兩大部分,首先,研究者從塞尚各個不同時期的作品中找出其演變的脈絡,進一步了解畫家的精神,並了解他如何一步一步達成自己畫作的目標,以及他在畢卡索與立體派畫家中所占有的地位。因此,第一部份研究者先以塞尚的畫為主,其他畫家的畫為輔,做為出發點去探索「自然存在於內部」的意義。對於一位畫家而言,何謂自然?何謂真實?畫家在畫布上重現的是內在的精神抑或是外在的完美複製?內部與外部的分野,如同色彩與輪廓的爭辯。輪廓由此成為探求自然本質中重要的一環。對畫家來說相像與不相像、真實與不真實的界線究竟以什麼做為評判的依據?研究者發現,法西斯培根的自畫像便可以回答這些問題。
      探討完從畫家的角度所認為的自然之後,本論文第二部份著重在梅洛龐蒂的哲學思想,以他的觀點來論自然,並將第一部分與第二部分結合。梅洛龐蒂以「空間」來詮釋自然,但是必須與一般的幾何空間做明顯的區隔,他所論述的空間為內在的空間,也就是空間的深度,以亨利米修的語言來說是「詩意的空間」,並非表面可測量大小的空間。此外,第二部分又分為兩章,第一章談論梅洛龐蒂所言的「深度」,他以此概念發展「空間」一詞的意義。深度也就是此內在空間如何形成?那正如同畫家所提出的疑問:在二度空間的畫布上如何畫出現實中的三度空間?另外,深度一詞也助於探索主體與客體以及自然與人的關係。研究者在此也將「空間」此概念延伸到梅洛龐蒂另一個主要的哲學概念「可見與不可見」。眼睛所見與眼睛所不可見正是他所論及的內部空間。可見與不可見之間的關係,即是眼睛所見之物與內在感受之間的互動關係,也可以說是眼與心的結合。第二部分當中,第二章研究的是他另一部作品「塞尚的疑惑」,研究者試圖更仔細地探究空間概念與塞尚的繪畫精神中相輔相成之處。空間一詞,可延伸為關係的深度。關係是否只停留在表面?禁錮於主與客之間?塞尚與梅洛龐蒂所追求的自然當中並無主動與被動的關係,而是對於本質的探索。他們所謂的本質是兩個不同的主體交織的那一剎那,這一刻所產生的關係,一個無法定義的關係。然而,在「塞尚的疑惑」中,研究者發現梅洛龐蒂以這樣的關係進而對於「人性」與「自由」有更深入的的研究。何謂人性?何謂自由?當主體與客體的決定性角色消失之後,主體是否仍存在?他探索自然與人之間的關係另一方面也是反思人性與自由二詞。根據梅洛龐蒂的觀點,人融入到大自然之中,表面上看似主體性的消失,但實質上卻是從大主體來找尋所謂的主體性也就是本質。
    This thesis was developed mainly based on Merleau-Ponty’s “Eye and mind”. The book covers various diverse topics, which includes Henri Michaux’s poems and several pieces of some important painters, such as Paul Cezanne, Paul Klee, Pablo Picasso, etc. The central theme of this book is that Merleau-Ponty combined his philosophy with the paintings of Cezanne. Another book of his, “Cezanne’s doubt”, demonstrates this thesis. From the three books, “Phenomenology of perception”, “The visible and invisible”, and “Eye and mind”, we can tell that Cezanne apparently plays an important role in Merleau-Ponty’s philosophical system. He has been searching for the essence of the internal nature, and that’s exactly what Cezanne was pursuing through his paintings, which are mainly about nature throughout his life. Both of them are searching for the idea “Nature is on the inside”, as said by Cezanne.

    This thesis came in two parts. The researcher noticed the evolution of Cezanne’s paintings throughout his different stages of life, and learned more about how he accomplished his goals in painting. The researcher also learned about his status among the other painters, including Picasso. According to the above, the first part of the thesis is about searching for the meaning of “Nature is on the inside”, based on mainly the paintings of Cezanne, and secondly the paintings of the other painters. The researcher intends to find out the answers to several questions. What is nature and reality to a painter? Do painters focus on internal spirit or perfect external copies? The demarcation between the internal and external is like the argument between color and shape. The shape hence becomes an important element of the search for the essential of nature. What is the basis for painters to judge the borderline: between resemblance and difference or reality and unreality? The researcher realized that the self portrait of Francis Bacon can help answer these questions.

    After discussing nature in the eyes of the painters, the second part of this thesis comes to focus on Merleau-Ponty’s philosophical thoughts. The researcher tried to discuss nature from his point of view, and combined the first and second part. Merleau-Ponty interpreted nature from the “space”, but the space here must be separated from the concept of geometric space. The space Merleau-Ponty mentioned is the internal space, as the depth of space, which was also called the poetic space by Henri Michaux. This isn’t measurable space. The second part includes two chapters. The first chapter was about “Depth”, in which Merleau-Ponty developed the concept of the word “space”. How is the “depth”, the so-called internal space, formed? A question some painters have which is similar to this is how to paint three-dimensional space on a two dimensional canvas. Additionally, the word “depth” also helps discover the relationship between the subject and the object, or between nature and human beings. The researcher extended the concept of space to another of Merleau-Ponty’s main philosophical concepts, ”the visible and the invisible”, which is exactly the internal space he mentioned. The relation between the visible and the invisible means the mutual relationship between what we see and our internal feelings. Said differently, it’s the combination of the eye and the heart.

    In the second chapter, the researcher analyzed another book of Merleau-Ponty “Cezanne’s doubt”. The researcher intended to discover more thoroughly how the concept of space and the spirit of Cezanne’s paintings complement each other. The word “space” can be extended into the depth of this relationship. Does the meaning of relationship only stay as it looks and be restricted by the subject and the object? The nature that Ponte and Cezanne pursued has nothing to do with the relationship between activeness and passiveness, but the searching for the essence, which they consider to be the undefined relationship when two different subjects suddenly interact in the same moment. However, in “Cezanne’s doubt”, the researcher realized that Merleau-Ponty thought more about humanity and freedom based on the idea of this undefined relationship. What is humanity? What is freedom? Does the subject still exist when the decisive roles of the subject and object disappear? Merleau-Ponty searches for the relationship between the nature and human. On the other hand, he also inspects the meaning of humanity and freedom. According to his point of view, when humans get involved in nature, the subject seemingly disappears, but essentially the subject will be found as the essence itself.
    显示于类别:[法國語文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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