在全球化浪潮成為一股任何地方或個人皆無不受其影響的滔天巨浪之時，異文化之間頻繁的交會碰撞使得自我和他者的關係也隨之流變易位，在此之下，自我認同(Self-identity)不再具有永世且普世的共同意義，而是個人不斷地和周遭反身投射時創造出的新意義。土耳其作家歐罕．帕慕克(Orhan Pamuk)的小說《我的名字叫做紅》藉由描述十六世紀奧圖曼帝國的細密畫家的謀殺案探討其自我認同的問題，在面對文藝復興的毆洲畫家的衝擊下，土耳其傳統的細密畫法和歐洲時興的透視法使細密畫大師們關係緊張對立，一位細密畫家因此遭到殺害，為調查兇手身分，一連串伊斯蘭和西方文明之間充滿衝突的對話與辨證就此展開。 本文主要由三方面探討帕慕克在《我的名字是紅》中的自我認同政策，第一章由小說中的城市地景的空間描繪中探究其認同策略，伊斯坦堡作為奧圖曼帝國的首都，我將應用傅柯的異質空間論述 (Heterotopology) 論述伊斯坦堡城市景觀中異文化樣貌使之成為多元文化混雜之異托邦 (Heterotopia)，此外，我將城市中的咖啡館解讀為想像與現實交融的索雅的第三空間，文本中的城市敘述反應跨越自身文化、地域及想像的自我身分認同。第二章由文本中的文類探討其認同策略，由超過二十個第一人稱的敘事者構成多元敘事觀點及主體，此小說具有後現代小說眾聲喧嘩的特色﹔再則以謀殺緝凶為主軸的偵探小說，在尊崇科學理性的現代性脈絡下，本文結合不同的傳統敘事結構，如說書、羅曼史及歷史小說，跨越不同的敘事主體及敘事結構演繹出帕慕克流動不定、交雜現代與傳統的自我身分認同。第三章由文本中的文化藝術衝突探討其認同策略，由艾尼需特大師秘密策劃的仿歐洲文藝復興時期寫實派畫家的書畫冊不但引發了土耳其細密畫家之間的衝突，也對照出伊斯蘭文化和歐洲文化的不同，跨越異文化間的藩籬，本章企圖論證帕慕克意圖在文本中打破東西文化的對立關係，開創出霍米巴巴在《文化的位置》中闡述的文化混雜之第三空間，進而將自我身分認同定位於此。 This dissertation aims to examine in-betweenness in the process of Turkish identity-formation. A fictional murder mystery set in sixteenth century Istanbul, Orhan Pamuk’s My Name Is Red is a narrative not only about an investigation into the murderer’s identity but also Turkish self-awareness. Although the perpetrator is definitively revealed at the end of the story, Turkish identity remains fluid and changeable in the liminal space between the self and the Other, as well as the Islamic world and that of Western Europe. As a result, it proves to be as multi-faceted and ambiguous as the different definitions of “Red” in Islamic and European cultures.
In this study, I spatialize Pamuk’s Turkish identity-formation in three overlapping dimensions, including the urban space, the narrative space, and the cultural space. Chapter One interprets how Turkish identity is inscribed into the spatial narratives of Istanbul. The place identity of Istanbulites is asserted in a space of liminality. The description of the native landscape is interwoven with non-native buildings and other elements such that Turkish identity is formed in the cross-cultural space in-between the real landscape and the imagined framework of social and historical spatiality. Chapter Two focuses on Turkish identity imprinted into the polyphonic narrative space created by the postmodern novel. Inserted by multiple narrators, the novel constructs a crossbred Turkish identity from diverse perspectives. And in combining the novel with other narrative genres in the context of this story, Turkish identity is revealed in the hybridized narrative. Chapter Three explores how Turkish identity is formed in cultural space. Instead of representing the relationship between Islamic and Western culture as a binary opposition, Pamuk’s novel perceives it as being in a dialectical debate with one another. Thus, in the unfolding of this narrative, Turkish identity can be characterized by its fluidity as it oscillates in-between the cultural differences, a notion developed more fully in Edward Said’s “Third Space.”