|摘要: ||自1960年代女權運動興起，英語教育也開始重視性別平等。許多研究檢視了教科書內容是否呈現性別平等，包括性別偏見用字(sexist language)、男性與女性角色出現的次數比例、以及性格或社會角色上充斥的性別刻板印象。在台灣，也有研究探討教師的性別角色印象(gender images)及對性別平等教育的實踐狀況。然而，目前並無研究檢視EFL教師對其使用英語教科書上的性別偏見內容(gender-biased contents)的認知與看法。有鑑於此，本研究除了探討目前台灣國中英語教科書內的性別偏見內容，也欲了解其國中英語老師對於性別偏見內容的認知與教學。|
本研究探討了151本國中英語教科書，檢視其性別偏見用字與性別角色的活動，發現當前的教科書仍包含性別偏見內容，如字尾-man用字仍然常用於教科書內；至於性別角色活動，男生仍然較常從事室外與工具性活動且較為獨立(instrumental independent activities)；而女性則較常從事較為依賴或是被動性的室內活動(passive dependent activities)。
Gender equality in English education has been emphasized for decades since the feminist movement started from the late 1960th. Studies around the world have been conducted to evaluate the gender-biased contents in the textbooks, including the sexist language, frequency of appearance of male and female characters, and gender stereotypes such as the characterizations or social roles of men and women (Heikkinen, 1978; Huang, 2009; Lee and Collins, 2008; M. D. Yang, 2005; Su, 2001; Walford, 1981, 1983). Some research was also conducted to evaluate teachers’ general ideas of gender stereotypes and equalization in Taiwan (Lin, 2006; Tsai, 2003). Nonetheless, there is no research found to investigate if the EFL English teachers are aware of those gender-biased contents and if they will teach those contents or not. With this inadequacy in mind, this study aims to not only evaluate the gender-biased contents in the current English textbooks of junior high school in Taiwan, but also discover the EFL teachers’ awareness and performance toward the gender-biased contents in the English textbooks they are using.
151 junior high school English textbooks were selected and analyzed. Sexiest language and gender stereotypes presented in the activities conducted by the gender roles among the texts and pictures were evaluated through content analysis. The results show that the gender-biased contents still exist in the current English textbooks, e.g., the words with suffix –man are still commonly used in the textbooks. In characterizations, male characters are dominant in the instrumental independent activities, presenting active and vigorous traits; while the female characters are in charge of the passive dependent activities, showing obedience and placidity as virtues.
The investigation of the teachers’ awareness and performance toward the gender-biased contents in the English textbooks through questionnaires ( “Awareness and performance of gender bias in English textbooks” and “Gender images and equality in practice questionnaire”) found that the 48 junior high school English teachers commonly possess positive perspectives toward teaching gender equality in English education, and their general ideas of gender equality would influence their awareness and performance in English teaching. The teachers’ word choice would also be influenced by the textbook contents. However, their teaching performance is not totally consistent with their awareness of gender-biased contents. As the English education in high schools has been putting emphasis on grammar translation and exam-oriented teaching for decades, gender equality might be neglected as it has been considered less important in the English class. Furthermore, the sexist language was easier to be noticed than the gender stereotypes hidden in the texts and pictures as they are considered more deeply related to cultures and values. Finally, the teachers’ background factors do not cause significant difference toward their awareness and performance of gender biased contents.
These findings suggest that there is still room for the textbook publishers to keep improving gender equality in English textbooks. The English teachers and educators should also be educated to become more sensitive toward gender-biased contents and integrate the ideas of gender equalization into their English teaching.