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    Title: The satire of the maldevelopment of human rationalism in Margaret Atwood's The handmaid's tale and Oryx and crake
    Other Titles: 瑪格麗特.愛特伍<<使女的故事>>與<<末世男女>>對人類理性主義畸形發展之諷刺
    瑪格麗特愛特伍使女的故事與末世男女對人類理性主義畸形發展之諷刺
    Authors: 蔡曉晴;Tsai, Sincere Hsiao-Ching
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系博士班
    黃逸民;Huang, I-Min
    Keywords: 畸形發展;理性主義;生態女性主義;不可預測性;諷刺;satire;maldevelopment;Rationalism;ecofeminism;randomness
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 10:28:31 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本論文旨在探討瑪格麗特.愛特伍小說《使女的故事》與《末世男女》對人類理性主義畸形發展之諷刺與批判。透過諷刺筆法,作者呈現出畸形發展的人性導致畸形發展的人類理性主義,並因此造成人類對自然環境、生態系統、和人類社會的畸形發展,導致地球環境和人文社會的破壞。本論文使用生態女性觀點,分析比較這兩本小說所呈現的諷刺批判意涵,顯示人類濫用理性主義所引起的生態危機。
    引言的部分解釋本人撰寫論文的動機和相關議題。第一章簡介論文的主題,包括諷刺小說的運用和目的,並解釋人類理性主義和生態女性主義的發展與脈絡。首先探討愛特伍如何使用諷刺筆法嘲弄當代現象,並藉此呈現出人類理性的畸形發展。之後本論文使用生態女性主義觀點分析這兩本小說,批判當代政治、社會、經濟、科技等相關議題,並提出人類和自然環境和諧共處、共存共榮的方法。第三部份著重在不可預測性的顛覆力量。這股長久以來被忽視的力量,往往在破壞與重建人類社會和世界時扮演著關鍵的角色。藉由這兩本小說的開放結局,作者在不可預測性當中仍然指出了希望。
    第二章探討《使女的故事》裡人類理性主義的畸形發展和批判。小說裡的統治階級,也就是大主教們,建立一個神權統治的軍政府,致力控制女性和自然的生育力,並且企圖整治人類社會和生態環境的破壞,結果卻是徒勞無功。小說以諷刺筆法揭露那些大主教偽善的外衣,描繪他們濫用宗教、政治、法律等力量來懸置人權、物化女性,實則為了滿足私欲,並呈現出人類理性主義的畸形發展將導致功用取向的反烏托邦社會,並帶來更深的毀滅。
    第三章探討《末世男女》裡人類理性主義的畸形發展和批判。小說呈現的當代社會中,人們盲目崇拜科學科技,過度重視資本積累,卻忽視人文思想和生態危機,導致人類社會的不平衡發展。這種科學和資本主義的畸形發展帶來利益取向的社會,並且在全球化的推波助瀾之下,最終導致世界末日的毀滅。作者諧擬聖經故事,重新講述末日和創世紀,帶給讀者警語與想像。
    結論的部分批判比較兩本小說中人類理性主義的畸形發展,並指出不可預測性的顛覆力量。無論是《使女的故事》中的大主教,還是《末世男女》中的瘋狂科學家,他們畸形發展與濫用理性主義來滿足私欲,卻缺少人文思想;而向來被忽略的女性和自然的力量卻可以顛覆瓦解他們縝密的計劃。除此之外,當代生態環境和人類社會屢遭破壞,而生態女性主義觀點卻可幫助人類和自然建立和諧共榮的永續關係。藉由發展更寬廣多元的思維,並且節制欲望,人們就可以建立一個更美好的社會。
    The focus of this dissertation is an analysis of Margaret Atwood’s criticism of rationalism through the use of satire, showing that the maldevelopment of human nature results in the maldevelopment of natural environments, ecosystems, and human societies leading to the degradation of the earth and causing many social problems in the world. In this dissertation, I use an eco-feminist perspective to analyze and compare the satiric messages and meanings in the two novels of Atwood, The Handmaid’s Tale and Oryx and Crake. Using such a critique, it becomes clear that Atwood’s novels satirically reveal how ecological problems derive mainly from the excesses of human nature manifested in the very institutions human beings have developed in the exercise of their excessive rationalism.
    I explain my motivation and concerns of this dissertation in the Introduction. Chapter One is an introduction of my focuses, including satire, human rationalism, ecofeminism, and theoretical background. Firstly, I would like to analyze how Atwood uses a satirical approach to ridicule modern phenomena and important issues, thereby revealing the maldevelopment of human rationalism. Secondly, I would like to analyze the two novels using an eco-feminist perspective, which provides insight into socio-political, economical, scientific, and technological problems, as well as indicates a way to restore a harmonious relationship between human beings and nature. The third point of analysis is the power of randomness and its subversive power in the deconstruction and reconstruction of the world and human society. With the open endings of the two novels, Atwood suggests hope for people in random possibilities instead of in rationalism.
    Chapter Two provides an analysis of the maldevelopment of human rationalism in Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale. The novel portrays the failed efforts of the Commanders, the ruling class, to set up a theocratic military government in order to fix the problems of infertility in women and nature, as well as to reverse the social ecological degradations of the world. In this part, I would like to analyze the maldevelopment of the religion of the Commanders first, and then discuss how they pervert politics and laws to suspend human rights and objectify the female body. Atwood shows how the maldevelopment of human rationalism can lead to a function-oriented dystopia and bring further destruction.
    Chapter Three is an analysis of the maldevelopment of human rationalism in Oryx and Crake. In this part, I analyze how the maldevelopment of science and capitalism (human rationalism) brings forth an unbalanced profit-oriented society and eventually leads to the extreme catastrophe of the Red Death. As a modern satire of biblical stories, Atwood’s novel parodies the stories of Genesis and provides prophetic warnings to its readers.
    In my conclusion, I criticize the maldevelopments that ensue from human rationalism in the two novels, and highlight the power of randomness. Furthermore, I suggest some ways that the eco-feminist perspective can help human beings forge a more harmonious relationship between themselves and nature in order to deal with the social ecological degradations of the world in modern societies. With moral pluralism and limited human desires, people can set up a more well-rounded society.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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