本研究也針對六個常用話語標記- I think, so, like, you know, yeah 和 yes –
之使用頻率及功能進行質與量的分析。從使用頻率來看,調查發現:1) 三組學生在 so 和
I think 之使用頻率上無顯著差異; 2) 然而兩組台灣學生相比,英文為共通語學生使用 like, yeah 和 you know 的頻率遠高於英文為外語學生使用頻率,並且 like 和 yeah 的平均使用差異顯著; 3) 與英文母语者相比,英文為外語學生明顯過度使用 yes 並且平均差異顯著。從使用功能來看,1)與英文為共通語者相比,英文外語學生不曾使用 like 的 “間接用語標示”與 “概括標示”功能; 2) 英文外語學生不曾使用you know 之 “求同標示”與 “話輪轉換標示”之功能; 3) 與英文母語者相比,英文共通語學生及英文為外語學生所使用之I think 之“强调標示语”功能和 you know 之“遲疑標示语”功能,為英文母語者所無。最後合併訪談發現, 英文共通語及英文外語之臺灣學生對各話語標記的語用功能認識不全,導致該兩組臺灣學生在面對面溝通時,有避免使用話語標記的情形,並對使用話語標者有所誤解。
This dissertation compared discourse markers used among 19 Taiwanese students in English as a lingua franca (ELF) context, 18 Taiwanese in English as a foreign language (EFL) context, and 7 native English (NS) speakers in a Taiwanese university. Fifty-four different discourse markers were identified from the data of 175 minutes recorded pair conversations. The results showed that discourse markers were an indispensible part of English conversations. The participants in three groups used discourse markers for a variety of pragmatic functions on interpersonal and textual levels. In particular, ELF speakers had the highest frequency of overall markers used across groups, and the mean difference between ELF and EFL speakers was significant.
In addition, the results revealed that group differences affected the distributions of like, yeah, yes and you know, but did not affect the distributions of I think and so. In particular, ELF speakers had the highest frequencies of like, yeah and you know, and the mean differences of like and yeah between ELF and EFL were statistically significant. Conversely, EFL speakers used yes far more often than NS and ELF speakers did, and the mean difference between EFL and NS was statistical significant. These results might be an indication that L2 speakers acquired I think, so and yes first, but you know, yeah, and like at a later stage in the ELF context where ELF speakers were exposed to authentic language from their native speaking peers.
Finally, due to the multifunctionality of discourse markers, students in both ELF and EFL context used you know, I think and so as delaying strategies which were not found in the NS data. This tendency might be an indication that students in both ELF and EFL context needed more time to process information in L2 interactions. Given the important role discourse markers play in interaction, the pedagogical implications were discussed.