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    Title: Fluid subjectivity and psychoanalysis reconsidered : affects in schizo-cinema
    Other Titles: 流動主體與精神分析再探 : 「分裂電影」中的情感
    Authors: 饒美君;Rao, Mei-Chun
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系碩士班
    涂銘宏;Tu, Ming-Hung
    Keywords: 情感;麥茲與德勒茲電影理論;佛洛伊德夢境理論;重覆行為;精神分析;分裂精神分析;慾望機器;affects;film's theories from Christian Metz and Gilles Deleuze;Freud's dream theories;compulsion to repeat;psychoanalysis;schizoanalysis;desiring-machine
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 10:27:22 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本論文旨在透過三部「分裂電影」:《全面啟動》、《記憶拼圖》和《隔離島》,重新檢視精神分析對於各電影文本中,角色們所承受的焦慮、創傷和壓抑的解讀。所謂「分裂電影」意指一種透過精神分裂的分析(schizoanalysis)來解讀電影的新方式,也代表一種電影類型,這類電影中的角色通常遭遇混亂的 “時間輪迴” (time loops),和處於 “不連貫的時間和空間裡” (fragmented spatio-temporal reality)。 我相信,透過謹慎處理精神分析和分裂精神分析的解讀,各文本的主要角色便能試著和自身所面臨的內心衝突共處,而不僅是被完全消弭,或者單方面成為必須透過精神分析的因果關係來診斷的心理疾病。
    事物皆非穩定的概念是第一章的主要架構。本章將建立於此架構,仔細檢視佛洛依德在《科學的心理學計畫》對於神經分子的流通概念(flowing neurons)、《夢的解析》、麥茲克里遜在《意象的能指:精神分析與電影》對於做夢和看電影的區分,以及保羅里克在《佛洛伊德與哲學:論詮釋》一書中對於詮釋的看法,進而一一分析並對應主角科博在《全面啟動》的混亂情境,例如他所身處的夢境,並提出佛洛依德式的不足,例如夢境裡壓抑的機制,或者詮釋本身的缺陷。
    第二章將透過佛洛依德和德勒茲的情感概念(the concepts of affects),仔細重新檢視精神分析對於角色記憶和焦慮的解讀。佛洛伊德和德勒茲的情感概念皆指一種加諸於角色上的力量(forces),此概念不僅強調佛洛伊德在精神分析上的貢獻,也顯示精神分析和德勒茲式的精神分析再探間的密切關係。此外,本章將透過德勒茲的電影理論,例如感官影像(the perception-image),來討論科博的焦慮和他對茉兒的回憶,為科博提供一個能和焦慮和回憶共處的選擇。同時,佛洛伊德在《超越愉悅原則》一書中強迫重複行為的概念(the compulsion to repeat),再次回應科博在《全面啟動》和李奧納多在《記憶拼圖》的行為,讓精神分析再探更加完整。
    第三章的主要理論為德勒茲與瓜達里於《反伊底帕斯:資本主義與精神分裂》一書中的精神分裂(the concept of schizophrenia)和欲望機器(the desiring-machine)。本章便是透過這兩個概念,重新檢視泰德在《隔離島》的瘋狂。受到《反伊底帕斯》裡精神分裂分析的啟發,我將精神分裂的概念轉變為泰德所面臨的兩種心理衝突。而欲望機器的概念,則衍伸成為一種社會性的介入,有別於精神分析式的解讀,在泰德的瘋狂上扮演重要的角色。
    結論章將重點放在「分裂電影」的突破和特色。其中,我特別觀察德勒茲於《電影2:時間影像》中的第五章《現在的顛峰和過去的片段:論柏格森的第四理論》和第六章《錯誤的力量》裡的概念,並分析這三部分裂電影,以提供不同於精神分析式的解讀,為角色的焦慮、創傷回憶和重覆行為提供出口、但並非透過逃避或否認的方式,而是與那些痛苦共存。
    In this thesis, psychoanalytic way of reading conflicts, such as anxiety, trauma and repression which characters have been encountering in the three "schizo-cinematic" films, Inception, Memento and Shutter Island will be carefully dealt with to seek a schizoanalytic space where main characters can coexist with their own mental conflicts.
    In Chapter One, the concept of the instability is the main structure. On the basis of this structure, Inception is closely read through psychoanalytic perspectives from Sigmund Freud''s "Project for a Scientific Psychology", Interpretation of Dreams, Christian Metz''s The Imaginary Signifier: Psychoanalysis and the Cinema to Paul Ricoeur''s Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation. During the discussion, Freud''s idea of flowing neurons in “Project for a Scientific Psychology” and his dreams theories prove to resonate with chaotic situations in the dream world of Inception. However, his implications of repression mechanism in dream theories provokes further meditation if Cobb''s dreams reveal his repression of Mal or the reconstruction of Mal. Meanwhile, the connection between films and dreams in Metz''s theories not only highlights the blurry distinctions between watching films and making dreams, but also makes films stand out as particular medium within the reconsideration of characters''conflicts and struggles. Ricoeur''s supplementary re-examination about the concept of interpretation once helps reconsider insufficiencies in Freud''s dream theories.
    In Chapter Two, the psychoanalytic reading of characters'' memories and anxiety is cautiously reconsidered through the concepts of affects from Freud and Deleuze. Both concepts of affects proved to be strong forces upon characters approve Freud''s contribution in psychoanalysis and reveal the close link between psychoanalysis and Deleuzian tendency to revision of psychoanalysis. Meanwhile, Deleuze''s film concepts, such as the perception-image in Cinema 1: the Movement-Image is discussed along with Cobb''s anxiety and memories about Mal to provide Cobb with an option to coexist with his anxiety and memories. In addition, Freud''s proposition about the compulsion to repeat in Beyond the Pleasure Principle helps complete the process of psychoanalytic revision with both cases of Cobb in Inception and Leonard in Memento.
    In Chapter Three, Deleuze and Guattari''s concept of schizophrenia in Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia is the main theoretical framework to re-read Teddy''s madness in Shutter Island. Inspired by the concept of the schizophrenia in Anti-Oedipus, where the term of schizophrenia deemed as schizoanalysis, I relate the schizophrenic idea to two conflicting forces in Teddy and his alternate identity, Laeddis. In addition to the two schizophrenic forces in Teddy, the desiring-machine, another concept from Anti-Oedipus, is seen as the social intervention that might be ignored by psychoanalytic reading.
    In Conclusion, the breakthroughs and characteristics of schizo-cinema are emphasized in details particularly through two chapters, "Peaks of present and sheets of past: fourth commentary on Bergson" and "The powers of the false" from Deleuze''s Cinema 2: the Time-Image to explore possible outlets that might provide characters'' own anxiety, traumatic memories and repetition with different interpretations from psychoanalysis. Instead of eliminating or denying those conflicts, characters might choose to coexist with their own struggles.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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