政府開發援助(ODA)不僅是日本透過雙邊與多邊援助，對國際社會做出重要貢獻的外交工具，也是在以現實主義為主流的國際關係之中，缺乏天然資源又身為二次大戰戰敗國的日本，在追求經濟成長與提升國際地位等國家利益時，最重要的外交手段之一。 冷戰結束以後，日本在變動的國際環境中發展「政治大國」路線的同時，國際社會開始高度關注以非洲為中心，圍繞著人類生活條件與生存環境的改善。佔聯合國會員國總數約四分之一席次，並蘊藏有豐富天然資源的非洲，因而成為日本發展大國路線，實施ODA的重點區域。隨著ODA政策的轉變，並與國際機構共同舉辦「東京非洲發展國際會議」，致力於落實《千禧年發展目標》，日本不斷爭取非洲國家與國際社會的認同，試圖造有利於日本發展的國際環境。 因此，本論文透過四點研究目的：(一)日本受到哪些國內外因素之影響，因而調整冷戰後的對外援助政策？(二)日本如何修正非洲政策，在政治動盪、經濟落後，仰賴國際援助的非洲實施援助，維持外交關係並增強影響力？(三)日本有何援助非洲的實績與成果？(四)日本是否透過援助非洲實現其目的？從現實主義的角度，探討冷戰結束以後日本援助非洲的發展過程及其效益。 Official Development Assistance (ODA) is not only the diplomatic implement for Japan to make major contribution to international society through bilateral and multilateral assistance, but also one of the most important diplomatic means for this defeated nation of WWII, to pursue economic growth and increase its global status and national interests under the mainstream, realism, international relationship. In the Post-Cold War Era, Japan attempts to develop itself to be a Political Power under the turbulent international environment. Meanwhile, international society starts to focus on the improvement of human living condition and environment in Africa. Africa is a major area for Japan to develop political power in an international scale and carry out ODA as a result of which holds about a quarter of the United Nations member''s seats and possesses rich natural resources. In the wake of the changes of ODA policy, a Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD) was held with worldwide institutions, and fulfillment of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) became a priority, Japan tries to obtain the advocacy of African countries and international society by creating a beneficial global environment for Japan’s development. Therefore, to discuss the process and benefits of supporting Africa from the realist perspective, the study focuses on following four topics: (1)Whether the domestic and international factors influenced Japan to adjust their policy to aid foreign countries in the Post-Cold War Era? (2)How Japan modified its Africa policy and provided it with ODA to keep bilateral diplomatic relationship and strengthen Japan''s influence over a continent with an ever changing politics, fallen behind economy and international aid dependent society? (3)Whether or not there are contributions and achievements from Japan’s aiding Africa strategy? (4)Whether or not Japan has successfully carried out its aims by way of assisting Africa?