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    Title: 外人直接投資與越南勞動市場的變化
    Other Titles: FDI and the labour market changes in Vietnam
    Authors: 施明雄;Shih, Ming-Hsiung
    Contributors: 淡江大學亞洲研究所碩士班
    蔡青龍
    Keywords: 外人直接投資;勞動市場;越南;FDI;Labour Market;Vietnam
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 10:21:29 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 長年處於戰爭狀態的越南,至1975 年南北越戰爭結束,越南共產黨完成統一,國家對內採行共產主義的統治方式,對外實行封閉的政策,導致國家長年處於貧困狀態。開發中國家資本形成的不足,若要尋求發展,可藉由外國資金的投資,解決國內資本的不足,使國家得以脫離貧困,因此,越南若要展開發展,吸引外國企業的投資,將是一項重要的政策。
    1986年,越南共產黨展開革新政策,修改國家發展路線,其中開放FDI也是主要的政策之一,政府積極吸引外國企業,希望藉由外國資金的投資,促進越南的發展。革新政策也賦予勞工可自由選擇工作的權利,不再由國家安排,然而,勞動人口眾多乃是越南的優勢之一,卻得為這些勞動人口提供足夠的就業機會,才有利於國家的發展,將吸引FDI視為發展的主要政策,究竟FDI的投資能夠為越南勞動市場帶來何種幫助,將是本論文主要的探討方向。
    FDI在越南所投資的產業,至開放以來,主要的資金都投注於勞力密集的製造業當中,由於,越南產業主要以農為主,當FDI大量投入工業,將會帶起越南產業的變化。越南工業的發展相當依靠FDI,因此,當FDI集中於東南區,使得東南區工業化程度的大幅提升,其它極少受到投資的區域,其產業結構就未出現太大變動。隨著FDI在東南區的投資日益增加,FDI所創造的就業機會也逐漸的擴增,而東南區的就業結構也因受到產業的變動與FDI對該區所創造的工業就業機會影響下,使得東南區工業就業人口大幅提升,進而帶動了當地薪資的提升。FDI對東南區所帶來的助益,擴大了各區域發展的不均衡,此一推拉之下,東南區成為人民遷移的首選,年輕族群尋求翻身的區域。
    In 1975, the Communist Party of Vietnam had completed the unification. Vietnam adopted communist rule and remained the country a poverty state. In order to develop, the biggest problem was lack of national capital. Thus, the government needed to get foreign capital investment in order to solve out the lack of domestic funds and get rid of the Vicious Circle of Poverty. Therefore, attracting foreign investment is one of the main policies of Vietnam.
    In 1986, Vietnam adopted innovation policy (doi moi) and modified the national development routes. Opening FDI was one of the main polices. The Government was actively attracting foreign companies and hoped Vietnam’s economy can be developed by investing of foreign capital. As a result, Vietnam’s economy was growing very fast. There was a large decreasing of a number of poor people. The large labor force is one of the advantages of Vietnam. However, the government has to provide adequate employment opportunities for the labor force to be conducive to the country development in order to attract FDI as a development policy. This article is discussing how FDI investment can help the Vietnamese labor market.
    FDI is focus on investing to the labor-intensive industries. Vietnamese industry is mainly agriculture-based. When FDI invested huge fund to industrial, it has affected all industries in Vietnam. Industrial development in Vietnam quite relied on FDI. When FDI concentrated in the southeast region, there was a big increasing of the industrialization of the South East. On the contrary, the rest of regions, industrial structure have not been changed a lot. Under the influence of investment in the southeast area of increasing FDI, the southeast area of employment structure has been changed and industrial jobs have gradually increased. Meanwhile, the southeast industrial employment population has increased dramatically, and thus the local salary has been promoted too. As FDI helped southeast area’s economy, the uneven of expansion of the regional development has increased. The regions received very little investment where the economy development were lagging behind. Thus, the southeast region has become the first choice for people. Especially, younger have migrated to southeast region to seek new opportunities.
    Appears in Collections:[亞洲研究所] 學位論文

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