然而，除了這些正面的影響，觀光產業在發展的過程中，不論是在經濟面，亦或在社會文化及環境等方面皆會產生若干負面衝擊。例如，觀光收入的分配不均、對環境的污染和對大自然的破壞，以及造成古老傳統社會文化的分崩離析等。為了避免和解決這些潛在的問題，聯合國世界旅遊組織呼籲觀光產業在發展的同時，應依照聯合國提出的兩項發展目標為實踐依歸：1）永續性發展(Sustainable Development)， 2）千禧年發展目標(The Millennium Development Goals)。在此方面，秘魯政府正積極推動與上述目標相符合的一系列觀光政策。儘管如此，這些目標的實現，也意味著一定程度的困難與不確定性。於此，祕魯政府除了自身的努力，亦尋求透過國際合作在技術上及金融上的實力，來達成千禧年發展目標。因此，國際合作在祕魯觀光產業的文化面及生態面永續發展目標上，是一個不可或缺的重要的輔助力量。
Nowadays tourist activity has been considered one of the economic strategies more efficient in the economy development. It has been used by the governments, in developing countries as well as and developed ones, because of the ability to increase the number of foreign currencies, attract foreign investments, as well as create new employments, and reduce the poverty gap. Because its own nature, Peru (has abundant tourist niches, such as the historic-cultural heritage and the geographic biodiversity-coasts, highlands, and jungle) is one of the countries that greatly develops its economy based on tourism, and the tourism development has been considered one of the most important national policies. Regarding the contribution of the tourism sector to the economic development of the country, it is important to note that in 2002, 525,000 new jobs were created, and it was the third generator of foreign currencies, on 2007.
However in addition to these positive impacts, there are also some undesirable impacts in field of economics, as in the socio-cultural and environmental. For example inequality in the distribution of tourist income, the pollution of the environment, the degradation of the cultural heritage, and the destruction of the environment, are the hidden impacts generated by the tourist development. In order to avoid and solved these hidden impacts the UNWTO made a call for the implementation of tourism development practice in accordance with the goals presented by the United Nations: 1) Sustainable Development, 2) The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In this respect, the Peruvian government is promoting its tourist policies consistent with the goals mentioned. Nonetheless the achievement of these goals implies a certain degree of difficulty or uncertainty. Therefore, aside from the efforts realized by its own governments, the strength of the international cooperation is also considered a priority source for the tourist industry to channel tourism development into cultural and ecological sustainability, in compliance with the goals of the UNWTO, through its technical and financial potential.