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    Title: La cooperación internacional en el desarrollo turístico del Perú (1990-2010)
    Other Titles: 國際合作在秘魯觀光發展上之作用(1990-2010)
    International cooperation in the development of tourism in Peru (1990-2010)
    Authors: 鄧寓菲;Teng, Yu-Fei
    Contributors: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    白方濟;Francisco Luis Pérez Expósito
    Keywords: 觀光發展;永續性;國際合作;千禧年發展目標;祕魯;Tourism Development;Sustainability;international cooperation;The Millennium Development Goals;Peru;Desarrollo Turístico;Sostenibilidad;Cooperación Internacional;Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio;Perú
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 10:20:51 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 現今,不論是在已開發國家亦或發展中國家,觀光產業因具有增加外匯收入、吸引外國投資、提供就業機會、改善貧窮問題等正面效益,一直被視為最有效的經濟發展策略之一。祕魯,由於與生俱有的觀光發展優勢(如有豐富的歷史文化遺產以及多元的自然地理景觀:如沿岸、高原及叢林),是一個著重觀光產業之發展的國家,並將此列為重要的國家政策之一。該產業在祕魯經濟發展上已有卓越的貢獻,2002年創造了525,000個工作機會、2007年更是秘魯的第三大外匯收入來源。

    然而,除了這些正面的影響,觀光產業在發展的過程中,不論是在經濟面,亦或在社會文化及環境等方面皆會產生若干負面衝擊。例如,觀光收入的分配不均、對環境的污染和對大自然的破壞,以及造成古老傳統社會文化的分崩離析等。為了避免和解決這些潛在的問題,聯合國世界旅遊組織呼籲觀光產業在發展的同時,應依照聯合國提出的兩項發展目標為實踐依歸:1)永續性發展(Sustainable Development), 2)千禧年發展目標(The Millennium Development Goals)。在此方面,秘魯政府正積極推動與上述目標相符合的一系列觀光政策。儘管如此,這些目標的實現,也意味著一定程度的困難與不確定性。於此,祕魯政府除了自身的努力,亦尋求透過國際合作在技術上及金融上的實力,來達成千禧年發展目標。因此,國際合作在祕魯觀光產業的文化面及生態面永續發展目標上,是一個不可或缺的重要的輔助力量。
    Nowadays tourist activity has been considered one of the economic strategies more efficient in the economy development. It has been used by the governments, in developing countries as well as and developed ones, because of the ability to increase the number of foreign currencies, attract foreign investments, as well as create new employments, and reduce the poverty gap. Because its own nature, Peru (has abundant tourist niches, such as the historic-cultural heritage and the geographic biodiversity-coasts, highlands, and jungle) is one of the countries that greatly develops its economy based on tourism, and the tourism development has been considered one of the most important national policies. Regarding the contribution of the tourism sector to the economic development of the country, it is important to note that in 2002, 525,000 new jobs were created, and it was the third generator of foreign currencies, on 2007.

    However in addition to these positive impacts, there are also some undesirable impacts in field of economics, as in the socio-cultural and environmental. For example inequality in the distribution of tourist income, the pollution of the environment, the degradation of the cultural heritage, and the destruction of the environment, are the hidden impacts generated by the tourist development. In order to avoid and solved these hidden impacts the UNWTO made a call for the implementation of tourism development practice in accordance with the goals presented by the United Nations: 1) Sustainable Development, 2) The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In this respect, the Peruvian government is promoting its tourist policies consistent with the goals mentioned. Nonetheless the achievement of these goals implies a certain degree of difficulty or uncertainty. Therefore, aside from the efforts realized by its own governments, the strength of the international cooperation is also considered a priority source for the tourist industry to channel tourism development into cultural and ecological sustainability, in compliance with the goals of the UNWTO, through its technical and financial potential.
    Appears in Collections:[美洲研究所] 學位論文

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