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    Title: 巴拿馬運河歸還與巴美外交關係(1977-2011年)
    Other Titles: The transfer of Panama canal and diplomatic relation between Panama and United States
    Authors: 熊佑容;Hsiung, Yu-Lung
    Contributors: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    王秀琦;Wang, Hsiu-Chi
    Keywords: 巴拿馬;巴拿馬運河;巴拿馬運河條約;運河回歸;巴美關係;Panama Canal;Panama;Torrijos–Carter Treaties;United States
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 10:20:48 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 巴拿馬的歷史因其運河之戰略價值一直以來和美國牽連不斷,巴拿馬運河主導巴國的命運。自1903年巴拿馬獨立以來,就因其運河和美國維持著特殊的關係。在運河歸還前時期,雙方因各自所追求的利益不同,而衝突不斷,從巴拿馬觀點來看,巴拿馬所追求的國家利益是維護國家領土和主權的完整,因此爭取運河主權成為巴國政府主要目標,而美國所關注的是國家安全利益、經濟利益和軍事利益,巴拿馬運河對美國的經濟、軍事以及整個拉美戰略都具有重要的意義。
    1999年12月31日美國依據1977年簽署之「巴拿馬運河新約」,撤走美軍正式將巴拿馬運河歸還巴拿馬政府。自此,巴美關係有了嶄新的發展。美國不再以政治及軍事控制為主要手段,取而代之的是雙方在經貿的合作,巴拿馬成為美國在中美洲不可或缺的盟友,美國則成為巴拿馬主要的貿易夥伴。巴拿馬運河雖已歸還,但仍存在許多問題,加上巴國缺乏軍隊,在國際犯罪、毒品交易、非法武器的銷售、恐怖分子和環境破壞等方面的應變能力不足,加上其戰略位置仍對美國國家安全戰略有相當的影響。爰此,巴拿馬在諸多方面仍需美國的援助,兩國轉為密切合作的關係。
    本論文以巴拿馬運河的歸還作為基礎,探討運河歸還過程中,巴美關係之演變,以及運河歸還後巴美在經貿關係之發展,包括雙方貿易、投資以及巴美貿易促進協定之內容。除此之外,另亦探討雙方在安全議題上,包括緝毒、運河安全以及軍事基地上之合作。
    The importance of being at the geographical crossroads of the world has made Panama the Latin American Country most heavily influenced and shaped by the United States over the long time. The Panama Canal focused the economic and strategic interest of the United States more acutely and for much longer than any other place in the Western Hemiphere. For this reason,when Panama proclaimed its independence from Colombia in 1903, it concluded a treaty with the United States for U.S. rights to build, administer, and defend a canal cutting across the country and linking the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
    Before the Canal turnovered, they were in conflict of interest. The national interests of panama were the interity of Panama Canal, but for United States were the economic and military interests in the Canal.
    Thorugh the negociations over the years, U.S. government consistently affirmed a commitment to follow through with the Panama Canal Treaty and turn the Canal over to Panama at the end of 1999. Since then open a brand new relation between Panama and United States. The current relationship is characterized by extensive counternarcotics cooperation, assistance to help Panama assure the security of the Canal, and a proposed bilateral free trade agreement (FTA). Communications should be improved within the governments between Panama and the United States to launch a mutually beneficial new relationship, and the stakes remain high for both countries.
    Appears in Collections:[美洲研究所] 學位論文

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