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    Title: 聯調局長胡佛與美國反共運動之發展
    Other Titles: J. Edgar Hoover and anti-communism in the United States
    Authors: 王熙康;Wang, Hsi-Kang
    Contributors: 淡江大學美洲研究所博士班
    李本京
    Keywords: 反共運動;顛覆活動;國家安全;聯邦調查局;Anti-communism;Subversive Activities;National security;Federal Bureau of Investigation
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 10:20:43 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 身為一個聯邦調查局現代化締造者,胡佛(J. Edgar Hoover)公職身涯絕對是一傳奇故事。胡佛擔任局長近四十八年,沒有任何人士能如同他一般久任聯邦調查局長乙職。許多人士批評胡佛是透過監視、滲透、黑函及闖空門等非法手段獲取政治人物隱私,在擁有這些敏感資料情況下迫使政治人物與其合作。假設胡佛行為如此卑鄙,我們如何解釋他將聯邦調查局改造成一現代化與強而有力之執法機構?尤其,美國政治制度能讓單一人士影響乃至操縱總統,以及許多國會議員之思維與決策?此一現象似乎不太可能發生,其中必定有其他形成胡佛能久任局長之因素存在。
    事實上,早期聯邦調查局係一貪腐、無秩序與無效率之執法機構。在胡佛改革下,該局現已成為打擊重大犯罪、護衛美國本土安全之重要執法機關。更重要的是,胡佛致力打擊美國內共產顛覆活動,確保美國免於遭受共產勢力威脅。當一九一七年俄國革命發生時,美國內對共產主義一無所知,只有胡佛對其進行深入研究,強調共產主義係違反民主自由之政治思潮,美國人民若不留心共黨滲透與顛覆作為,則美國政治制度與生活方式均將消失殆盡。特別是,胡佛在論述共產主義對美國之威脅時,常將宗教與道德意涵相連結。共產主義主張無神論,因此不信仰上帝,同時也缺乏道德正當性。胡佛若未將宗教因素引入對共產主義之批判當中,亦恐無法激起美國社會之共鳴與支持。
    本文試圖藉由研究聯邦調查局檔案,以及胡佛所撰文章與演說等相關資料,試圖回答以下問題:胡佛與美國反共運動之關聯為何?在胡佛掌握下之聯邦調查局,如何藉推動清除國內共黨顛覆勢力而維護美國家安全?胡佛哪些侵害個人自由之不當作法引發爭議?綜合研究發現,胡佛之所以能成為最具影響力之聯邦調查局長,其中涉及到胡佛改革聯邦調查局與打擊重大犯罪所累積起來之社會聲望、聯邦政府的權力擴張、總統要求胡佛進行政治監視任務,以及彰顯總統個人維護國家安全之決心等因素,絕非胡佛對總統進行政治要脅之片面推論可得到解答。
    尤其重要者,胡佛終其一身不斷對大眾強調共產主義對美國與世界之威脅,塑造自己成為反共鬥士。如果沒有胡佛極力倡導反共運動,難保共產主義不會在美國落地生根,進而影響美國家安全。當然,胡佛係一為達目的不擇手段之人物,經常採取逾越法律之作法打擊犯罪與保衛美國家安全,導致聯邦調查局因濫權而侵害個人自由,這就是何以自由派人士常對胡佛進行嚴厲批判之主因。胡佛之作為亦反映出,政府如何在強調保障國家安全與維護公民自由間求取平衡,是必須認真省思之課題。
    J. Edgar Hoover, founder of modern day Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), was definitely a legendary figure. Reining the FBI for 48 years, he is by far the longest serving director of this crime-fighting agency. His critics accused him of resorting to unlawful techniques of surveillance, penetration, blackmailing and breaking-in to amass secret files on political leaders which could be later used to threaten those who refused to cater to his needs. Nevertheless, depicting Hoover as a despicable person failed to take into account his contributions to transforming the FBI into a well-established and powerful law enforcement agency. Besides, it did not stand to reason that the U.S. political system in Hoover’s time would allow anyone to manipulate the thinking and policy-making of the Presidents and members of Congress. There had to be other factors contributing to Hoover’s success.
    The FBI in the early days was a corrupt, disordered, and inefficient agency. It was under Hoover’s push for reform did the FBI eventually become the guarantor of domestic security by fighting heavy crimes. More importantly, Hoover was credited for fighting with communist subversion and successfully preventing the U.S. from communist threat. He was one of few Americans who seriously studied the Russia’s revolution of 1917 and warned of the putative threats to democracy and freedom posed by Russian Communism. As a high-profile anti-Communist, Hoover often sought to exploit the atheistic nature of Communism, portraying it as unreligious and unethical, thus unacceptable to faith-based American public. Hoover’s discourse about the lack of moral legitimacy of Communism facilitated his push for an anti-communism campaign in the U.S.
    This dissertation seeks to answer the following questions. What motivated Hoover to fight Communism? How did Hoover use the FBI to clean up the alleged Communist subversion in the U.S.? What approaches he resorted to that were deemed controversial? Through FBI documents and Hoover''s writings and speeches, I argue that Hoover became the most influential FBI director due to following reasons: a successful FBI reform, the expansion of federal power, secret surveillance entrusted by Presidents, and a manifestation of Presidents’ determination to ensure national security. The inference that Hoover used secret files to blackmail the Presidents he served may not be the proper explanation.
    More importantly, Hoover appealed to the public about the danger and threat of Communism to the United States and the world throughout his life. It is safe to say that Communism might have taken root in the US in the absence of Hoover’s efforts and dedication. However, Hoover’s concern about Communist subversion led him to overstep his jurisdictional bounds in his pursuit of eliminating that perceived threat. Liberal critics often charged him of abusing power, infringing upon personal freedom, and violating human rights, overshadowing his legacy as a strong defender of national security. In the end, what Hoover did revealed a hard lesson for any government that seeks to find a delicate balance between national security and personal freedom.
    Appears in Collections:[美洲研究所] 學位論文

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