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    Title: 知識抽象化策略對學習遷移的影響之實證研究:以錨式教學法教材為例
    Other Titles: Effect of Knowledge Abstraction Strategies on Learning Transfer: An Experimental Study with Anchored Instruction
    Authors: 陳如琇;施郁芬
    Contributors: 淡江大學教育科技學系
    Keywords: 學習遷移;情境認知理論;錨式情境教學法;電腦輔助教學;知識抽象化;遠遷移;近遷移;Learning Transfer;Situated Cognitive Theory;Anchored Instruction;Computer Assisted Instruction;Knowledge Abstraction;Far Transfer;Near Transfer
    Date: 1997-03-13
    Issue Date: 2013-04-09 11:50:35 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 臺北市:銘傳管理學院
    Abstract: 學習遷移是教育的主要目標。許多理論與研究均嘗試回答諸如學習遷移如何發生?以及如何促進學習遷移?等問題。情境認知理論與錨式情境教學法對促進問題解決及學習遷移提供了正面的發現。錨式情境教學法提供學習者一個情境化、屬實性及社會學習環境,並以解決問題代替事實及原理的學習。然而,學習者能夠在一個豐富情境中解決問題,並不代表他們能在陌生情境裡解決陌生的問題,會不會就像許多利用模擬的技能訓練一樣,受訓者往往只能解決類似情境下的類似問題(近遷移),但遠遷移則有困難。研究建議「知識抽象化」是學習遷移發生的主要因素,並且,如何產生抽離情境的知識(知識抽象化)將影響學習遷移。 本研究旨在探討於錨式情境教學法中,不同的知識抽象化策略如何影響學習遷移。錨式在教導學習者解決問題的過程中,包含教導抽離情境的解題策略,研究假設此即為促進學習遷移的原因。再者,是否提供輔助學習者自行進行知識抽象化的方法,將更有助於學習遷移?實驗處理即於錨式教學法中進行比較以下三種策略:(1)教導抽離情境的解題策略;(2)提供輔助策略(以自我省思的方式練習解決不同的問題)幫助學習者自行進行知識抽象化;(3)無知識抽象化活動對近遷移(指與原學習相同情境、不同類型的問題解決)及遠遷移(指與原學習不同情境、不同類型的問題解決)的影響。研究結果顯示,在錨式情境教學法中近遷移與遠遷移在程度上有所不同,但不同的知識抽象化策略對學習遷移未造成顯著的影響。
    Transfer of learning is one of the major purpose of education. Theories and researches have tried hard to answer questions like : How is transfer occurred ? How is transfer enhanced? Situated cognitive theory and research about Anchored Instruction together bring some positive findings. Anchored Instruction provides learner a situated, authentic, and social learning environment, and students learn to solve problems instead of facts and principles. Although students are able to solve various problems in this rich context, but is it enough for students to solve problems in different, novel context? Would it be like procedural/skill training that is successful in simulated training context? Trainees usually could solve similar problems in real context that training context simulated(near transfer), but not on far transfer problems. It is suggested that "knowledge abstration" is the key process for transfer to occur, and how is knowledge abstracted from context affects transfer. This research is to investigate how different knowledge abstraction strategies affect students' transfer ability. The teach of problem-solving strategies in Anchored Instruction is considered as helping students abstract knowledge from context and is hypothesized thus enable them to transfer. Furthermore, will it be better to provide aids (self-reflection activity) for students to abstract knowledge by themselves? An experiment was conducted to compare how Anchored Instruction with (1). teaching problem- solving strategies, (2). practice various problems with self-reflection activity, ( 3). no knowledge abstraction activity, affect near and far transfer. The result is that there is no significant deference in treatments. It is that different knowledge abstraction strategies didn't affect significantly students' transfer ability.
    Relation: 第六屆國際電腦輔助教學研討會學生論文集=Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction,頁18-26
    Appears in Collections:[教育科技學系暨研究所] 會議論文

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