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    Title: 經濟理論的競爭觀在執行反托拉斯管制上的定位與應用
    Other Titles: Controversy of Economic Concepts in Antitrust Law
    Authors: 莊春發;李顯峰
    Contributors: 淡江大學產業經濟學系
    Keywords: 經濟理論;公平競爭;公平交易法;聯合行為;Economic Theory;Fair Competition;Fair Trade Law;Collusion
    Date: 2003
    Issue Date: 2013-04-08 15:24:58 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 臺北市:行政院公平交易委員會
    Abstract: 公平交易法立法的目的,在於維護「市場交易秩序」與「確保公平競爭J 因此市場
    競爭的維持是整部公平法的核心,所以在公平法第四條,特別對「競爭」給予一般化的定
    義,以作為執法之依據。惟進一步檢視該定義,買IJ可發現其在市場上的時間層次、空間層
    次、競爭的必要與充分條件,以及有利價格的範圍上,仍有可加強的空間。
    回顧經濟文獻對競爭概念的定義,亦發覺經濟學家對「競爭」的看法,因信仰的理念
    不同,而有相當出入的看法。古典經濟學家(包括其他學者,如馬克思、熊彼德)相信競
    爭應該是動態的r長期」廠商進出市場容易而且快速,它可提供市場競爭維持的保障。
    相反的,新古典經濟學家則基於數理邏輯推導的結果,演繹成以「市場結構」取代對競爭
    的認知,並由此靜態結果發展出衡量競爭的標準。惟因應實際操作的需要,新古典學派進
    一步提出「可運作競爭」的準買Ij ;相對的, 古典學派的支持者,也提出「競爭性市場」概
    念與之抗衡,期冀能夠達成糾正新古典學派過於注重「市場結構」的偏頗。
    惟從較實務的角度出發r競爭內涵」可因著重的焦點的不同, 而有: 一、品牌內競
    爭與品牌問競爭;二、市場競爭與產業競爭;三、外國競爭與潛在競爭;四、水平競爭與
    垂直競爭等四種分類。
    將公平法有關反托拉斯法域的規範與各種競爭內涵相互對照,可以發現獨占力濫用行
    為的規範,涵蓋大多為多重的競爭內涵,只有少數條款為單一目標。結合的情況亦相同,
    隨其規範對象為水平、垂直與多角化,而有不同之競爭內涵目標。聯合行為的禁止,則最
    為簡單,單純地以「市場競爭」為目標。維持轉售價格的規範,主要以「品牌內競爭」的
    維持為主。杯葛則以「垂直競爭」為其重點;差別待遇、搭售、獨家交易則以「市場競爭」
    為主要內涵;至於地域限制、顧客限制、使用限制,亦如同維持轉售價格,以「品牌內競
    爭」為核心,當然它們亦關注於「市場競爭J (品牌間競爭)的內涵。
    總之,經濟理論上競爭概念的澄清,以及公平法反托拉斯法域條文競爭內涵的研究,
    可以發現反托拉斯法域大部分的條文仍以「市場競爭」為核心,在方向上比較傾向新古典
    學派的看法。當然中間也兼納古典學派的主張,考量「產業競爭」、「潛在競爭」的內涵。
    上述之結果對公平會的執法過程,將可提供認清執法方向之殼果,以避免捨本逐末之弊。The purpose of enforcing the Fair Trade Law (FTL) is to maintain the market order and
    ensure fair competition. But the FTL is only treated as the criterion under the current conditions,
    instead of being used to correct market failure. In the Article 4 of the FTL the definition of the
    competition is generalized and broadened. However, there exit still some controversies of the
    dimensions of time, spatial and the beneficial price. This report intends to discuss the concept of
    competition in both economic theory and what the FTL can further fulfill.
    In economics literature, there is still strongly controversy on the concept of market
    competition. Classical economists, including others like Karl Marx and Joseph Schumpeter etc.,
    believe that competition is of dynamic characteristic, and firms could easily enter and exit market
    in the long run. This ensures the existence of market competition. On the contrary, neoclassical
    economists put more emphasis on market structure and set a workable competition criterion
    instead, which are based on the mathematical reasons. On the other hand, classical economists
    propose a concept of contestable market to correct the only point-of-view of market structure.
    Due to diversified meanings, there are totally four different categories of market competition,
    i.e. intrabrand vs. interbrand competition, market competition vs. industry competition, potential
    competition vs. foreign competition, and horizontal competition vs. vertical competition etc.
    The inside spirit of pursuing competition is similarly different due to various regulation on
    abusing monopoly power. Regulating collusion behaviors is simply trying achieve market
    competition. The maintenance of resale price is the core pf intrabrand competition. Vertical
    competition is the key in boycott. Discrimination, tie-in sale, and exclusive dealing are all related
    to market competition. Geographical restriction, customer restriction, and user restriction belong
    to intrabrand competition and market competition.
    In sum, most regulation in the FTL therefore try to achieve market competition first and then focus upon other target such as industry competition, potential competition, intrabrand
    competition and vertical competition. If the Fair Trade Commission can first figure out the target
    to achieve and then decide the means of enforcement, then unnecessary mistakes can be avoided.
    Relation: 第十屆競爭政策與公平交易法學術研討會論文集,頁379-440
    Appears in Collections:[產業經濟學系暨研究所] 會議論文

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