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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://tkuir.lib.tku.edu.tw:8080/dspace/handle/987654321/85157


    Title: 事業共同研發聯合行為例外許可申請審查原則及其基準之擬議
    Authors: 范建得;莊春發
    Contributors: 淡江大學產業經濟學系
    Keywords: 聯合行為;共同研發;例外許可;經濟分析;Collusion;Joint R&D;Exemptions;Economic Analysis
    Date: 2004
    Issue Date: 2013-04-08 15:24:41 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 臺北市:行政院公平交易委員會
    Abstract: 面臨全球化環境的快速衝擊,台灣正努力調整國家整體的發展方向。近期行政院推動
    的「挑戰2008 J 國家發展重點計畫,便初步揭示台灣未來發展的願景。其中,如何迎接全
    球化的挑戰?如何面對中國大陸的競爭?如何建構人本的綠色矽島?如何因應國家組織再
    造與社會人才供需結構的改變?如何滿足台灣運籌的國際視野?這些問題,都呈現出未來
    台灣發展過程所必須面臨的挑戰。而列入國家十大重點投資中的e 世代人才培育、文化創意
    產業發展、國家創新研發基地、產業高值化、數位台灣計畫、全島運輸骨幹整建計畫、以
    及水與綠建設計畫等則對應的反映出國家以科技研發為本的規劃理念。長久以來,國家發展以及培植新興科技產業之企圖心始終如一,而共同研發則更是規
    劃中之必要措施,這其中,不論在以基礎科技研發為重的國家型計畫或在強調產業應用之
    研發聯盟俱然。尤其在我國加入WTO 後,如何調和科技政策與國家競爭福祉、維護不同產
    業間之競爭利益,以及維持市場競爭機能並排除限制競爭,均使得共同研發因牽涉及聯合
    行為之規定,而成為十分關鍵之重點課題。由於我國對於聯合行為採行原則禁止例外許可
    之制度,從而究竟在我國大力發展科技之際,如何同時維護一樣攸關國家福祉之競爭秩序,
    已然成為公平法施行以來持續為各界所重視之課題。
    就我國產業發展之經驗來看,不論支撐傳統產業升級之中心衛星工廠體系、高科技廠
    商的共同研發或國家型研究計畫所推動之研發成果共享,如國家基因體計畫之核心設施于
    計畫,以及近來積極推展中的光電產業聯盟;這些都是承續我國過去之產業發展政策,以
    資源分配及共享其核心來引領重點產業發展之規劃。
    然則不可諱言者,對於已正式加入WTO 的我國而言,人為的資源配置及其後所衍生的
    市場力量分布,終將對於市場機制產生影響。尤其在產業間或技術間之資源競用過程中,
    被納入資源共享圈之技術或機構通常享有較優勢之競爭地位,且隨國家或產業同業公會積
    極推動必要之資源、技術、設施等事項之合作或分配,往往更使新興科技之研發成果落入
    少數事業之掌握,甚至隨其研發成果之市場化,轉而成為扭曲市場競爭機能之限制競爭條
    件。當我們肯認共同研發乃持續創造台灣產業生命力之泉源時,其可能對於競爭產業、技
    術或事業產生之負面效果仍不可小靚;而這也正是歐美日等國之競爭法也始終對於共同研
    發投以相當關注之由來。
    整體而言之,就我國競爭法之角度來看,共同研發之例外許可應係一個十分核心的研
    究課題,其研究除應重視註釋及比較法學之探討外,更重要的是研判例外分際所應依賴之
    經濟分析及其評斷邏輯。此外,我國公平法第十四條所設定之總體經濟利益與公共利益權
    衡標準'往往是比其後各款之門檻規定更為複雜而繁複之分析,若不能嘗試將經濟分析之
    內容與過程某種程度之規範化,以利執法者與受規範者之互動,則例外許可審理過程之不
    確定性與可能之延若將嚴重傷害國家整體福祉。是以,共同研發之例外許可及其經濟分析,
    應係本研究最根本之課題所在。Taiwan is now promoting a new national development scheme--"challenging the year of
    2008."Among variable goals to be achieved narrated in the scheme, to keep up the pace with the
    global trend, to cop with the competition from mainland China and to build up a new sustainable
    environment and e-Taiwan can hardly be implemented without subject to cooperation.
    The establishment of new technology based industries has long been government's policy. In
    turns, joint Research and Development becomes essential to most of the major R&D plan,
    including the basic science research, national R&D plans & industry R&D alliances. This is
    especially true after Taiwan becomes a member to the World Trade Organization. The
    hannonization between technology development policy and national competition welfare, the
    protection of competition benefits among different industries fairly and the maintenance of market
    competition mechanism all share the same antitrust concern, viz. the possible collusion.
    According to the Fair Trade Law of Taiwan, the joint R&D between competitors has been
    generally prohibited unless the plan is pre-approved by the Fair Trade Commission. Therefore, it
    becomes necessary to figure out the way to gain a balance between the goals of national
    development and the welfare of competition policy. Indeed, this has been the core issue to be
    covered in the research project.
    In this research, taking the US, European and Japanese legislative trend as well as their
    regulations into consideration, a proposed guideline for reviewing R&D cases was recommended.
    In principle, this guideline follows the global trend of deregulation in dealing with a joint R&D
    case.
    Taiwan is now promoting a new national development scheme--"challenging the year of
    2008."Among variable goals to be achieved narrated in the scheme, to keep up the pace with the
    global trend, to cop with the competition from mainland China and to build up a new sustainable
    environment and e-Taiwan can hardly be implemented without subject to cooperation.
    The establishment of new technology based industries has long been government's policy. In
    turns, joint Research and Development becomes essential to most of the major R&D plan,
    including the basic science research, national R&D plans & industry R&D alliances. This is
    especially true after Taiwan becomes a member to the World Trade Organization. The
    harmonization between technology development policy and national competition welfare, the
    protection of competition benefits among different industries fairly and the maintenance of market
    competition mechanism all share the same antitrust concern, viz. the possible collusion.
    According to the Fair Trade Law of Taiwan, the joint R&D between competitors has been
    generally prohibited unless the plan is pre-approved by the Fair Trade Commission. Therefore, it
    becomes necessary to figure out the way to gain a balance between the goals of national
    development and the welfare of competition policy. Indeed, this has been the core issue to be
    covered in the research project.
    In this research, taking the US, European and Japanese legislative trend as well as their
    regulations into consideration, a proposed guideline for reviewing R&D cases was recommended.
    In principle, this guideline follows the global trend of deregulation in dealing with a joint R&D
    case.
    Relation: 第十一屆競爭政策與公平交易法學術研討會論文集,頁125-163
    Appears in Collections:[產業經濟學系暨研究所] 會議論文

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