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    Title: 競爭政策與產業政策的替代與互補
    Other Titles: Substitution and Complement of Competition and Industrial Policies
    Authors: 莊春發
    Contributors: 淡江大學產業經濟學系
    Keywords: 競爭法;主管機關;公平交易委員會;Competition Law;Authorities Concerned;Fair Trade Commission
    Date: 2001
    Issue Date: 2013-04-08 15:24:38 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 臺北市:行政院公平交易委員會
    Abstract: 競爭政策的落實在於「市場競爭狀態的維持」。競爭的內涵, 依分析情況則可在區分為「市場競爭」、「產業競爭」與「潛在競爭」等三種層次。「市場競爭」達成的必要條件為市場既有參與廠商人數必需充分, 以及每家廠商的決策必需是獨立的。「產業競爭」的實現, 則必需市場的進入要能容易、快速, 以及反應市場的現況,但在客觀法律障礙與既有廠商建立的人為障礙下, 並不容易實現, 唯有經由長期的調整才有可能。「潛在競爭」的內涵, 大部分的人可能同意其存在, 也瞭解它對市場影響的方向, 惟不易確認者,為其影響程度。在自然獨占、外部性與公共財存在的場合, í 競爭政策」的執行,可能不能獲得配置效率與生產效率的滿意結果。在此例外的情況下, 以公共利益的角度而言, 在政策方向上可能要改弦更張,以「產業政策」取代「競爭政策J ' 對市場的廠商人數,市場進入做人為的干預與控制, 以獲得公共利益的實現。然而, 以犧牲「產業競爭」內涵的「產業政策」並不表示豁免於「競爭」壓力的廠商, 即可全然豁免於其他競爭規制的約束。相反的,它仍一體適用於為「競爭政策」實踐所訂定「競爭法」的規範。明言之, í 產業政策」的形成與施行, 只顯示為「競爭政策」原則的例外。在特殊場合它替代「競爭政策」的一部分,但其他部分它仍一體適用「競爭政策」之原則。是故,在「產業政策」之後, r 競爭政策」乃為「產業政策」之補充。授諸台灣地區天然瓦斯產業與有線電視產業之實際情況,與公平交易法之執行現況分析,確實也驗證, r 產業政策」僅代表「競爭政策」某一部分因為特殊情況需割捨予以豁免之處理,除此之外,其餘部分仍應回歸到以「競爭」為原則。The purpose of competition is to maintain competitive status of the market. The
    contents of competition can be classified into three levels: market competition, industrial
    competition, and potential competition. The necessary condition to achieve market
    competition is that many firms should involve in the market and their supply decisions
    should be mutually independent. Industrial competition can be fulfilled if barriers to entry
    are low. However, the barriers set by current regulations and market participants would
    make it difficult to enter the market. Long-term adjustment is often needed. With regard to
    potential competition. most people would agree with its existence and influence, but are
    uncertain about the degree of its influence.
    The implementation of competition policies may not result in satisfactory allocation
    and production efficiency if there exist monopoly, externality, or public goods. Under the
    circumstances, regulators could use different policies to protect public interests. For
    instance, adopting industrial policies instead of competition policies to set the number of
    finns allowed in a market. or to change the barrier-to-entry conditions. But this does not
    mean favored firms are protected. They are still confined by compet.ition regulations under
    a broader scope. In other words, industrial policies may violate the competition principle
    and are designed to substitute for competition policies under very specific situations.
    However, competition is the highest principle to follow. Therefore, competition policies
    are complements of industrial policies.
    Based on the Antitrust Law practices for Taiwan's natural gas and cable TV
    industries, it is indeed shown that industrial policies represent part of competition policies,
    and their anti-competition forms can be excused under special situations. And other parts
    of the policies should still follow the competition principle.
    Relation: 第八屆競爭政策與公平交易法學術研討會論文集,頁67-102
    Appears in Collections:[產業經濟學系暨研究所] 會議論文

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