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    Title: 宋代恩赦與貶降官員的敍用
    Other Titles: Employ Officials that Been Remitted and Banished in Song Dynasty
    Authors: 林煌達
    Contributors: 淡江大學歷史學系
    Keywords: 恩赦;不原;貶降官;叙用;法規;政治;pardon;back original job;banish;employ;rules;politics
    Date: 2012-09
    Issue Date: 2013-01-15 15:53:17 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 台北:淡江大學歷史學系
    Abstract: 宋代官員因公罪、私罪、贓罪而有不同的懲處,或降官、勒停、除名,或令釐務,或處以散秩;其中贓私罪重者,還可能被處以配隸、羈管。被懲處官員的政治生命並未因此結束,透過朝廷的恩赦,他們仍然有機會敘復舊官。如太宗即位赦書載:「諸貶降、責授官量與升陟,在外未量移者與量移,已量移者與復資,已復資者與叙用。」神宗登極赦書中說:「流配人內有曾任職官已經恩赦放還者,量與叙用;除名、追官、停任、終身不齒及因詿誤連累自來未敢求仕人,並許於刑部投狀。行軍司馬、防團副使、上佐官、司士、文學參軍、衙前編管人等,並仰逐處分析聞奏,當議等第施行。曾配在衙前經恩已放逐便者,並許於刑部投狀,量與叙用。」此外,宋廷對貶降官員的恩赦,有越來越寬鬆的趨勢,陳師道說:「故事:常赦,官典贓入己不赦。熙寧以後,始赦吏罪。元祐七年南郊,赦杖罪。八年秋,皇太后服藥而赦,則盡赦之矣。」不過要注意的是,主政者對其政敵,通常不予恩赦敘用的機會,如紹聖四年的赦書載:「應見貶謫文武官,除元祐餘黨及別有特旨人外,未量移者與量移。未得與差遣使臣,並仰於所屬投狀,依例施行。應衝替命官,量情輕重,各以罪降輕者,便與差遣。」元祐黨人被排除在恩赦之外。秦檜執政時,胡銓等人,也都屢赦不移。
    The officials would be punished because of public crimes, private crimes or corruption. They may be banished, to quit positions, to terminate work or to order some duty. If officials got heavy corruption, they may be punished alike slave. But the officias that be punished didn't stop their political career. Through remitted by government they had chance to back their original position. For example, those who had been banished in local government could be pardon. Those who had been pardon could got seniority. Those who got seniority could be employed. The data recorded in document of pardon in Tai Zong's inauguration. Another pardon happen in Shen Zong's inauguratoin. Those who had been got position in central goverment and had been pardon could be employed again. They could hand in application to crimimal department. Besides, the tendency of pardon plicices became more looser. Chen Shi Dao appointed out that since Yuan You eighth year, all the officials pardon because of the queen taking medicine. In particular, those who control exectuive power would not pardon their emeny in goverment. As in pardon document of Shao Sheng fourth yesr, the officials employed in Yuan You period was excluded in the list of pardon. When Qin Kuai promoted in primer, Hu Quan and their party got pardon but didn't back the original job.
    Relation: 淡江史學 24,頁153-185
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系暨研究所] 期刊論文

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