Reports upon research carried out in Taiwan to assess the relative importance of external environment, internal conditions and contextual variables as the major source or momentum for school organizational learning. Maps out the intricate causal relationships among all external, internal and contextual factors with organizational learning process and outcomes. The sample comprised 51 primary and 37 secondary schools. It was found that school internal conditions – notably transformational leadership, positive school culture and supportive structure – outrank factors from other sources as the most critical elements in promoting organizational change, irrespective of the type and nature of schools or individual personal and background factors. Environmental constraints were not shown to be the dominant forces for organizations to engage in learning. Concludes that it is the leaders through their voluntary choice who bring about organizational change.
International Journal of Educational Management 16(5), pp.216-228