Caffeine is a widely consumed substance that occurs in numerous dietary sources, but teratogenic effects of caffeine intake during embryonic development are still not clear. In the present study, we used the zebrafish as a model to assess caffeine-induced toxicity on embryonic vascular development. A green fluorescent vascular endothelium transgenic line, Tg(fli1:egfp), was utilized for the sensitive detection of vascular development, including vasculo- and angiogenesis. Caffeine-treated embryos showed no defects in vasculogenesis, but revealed dose-dependent (250-350 ppm) developmental defects in intersegmental vessels, dorsal longitudinal anastomotic vessels, and subintestinal vein sprouting. Further, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of caffeine-treated embryos showed an upregulation of nrp1a along with a downregulation of sema3aa and sema3c. In conclusion, caffeine treatment induces defects of angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos.