本專題研究的目的是：抄寫與評價當代俄國的政治趨勢，及其跟民族認同 的關係。 蘇聯的解體產生了必要創造新的俄羅斯的認同， 自由改革的相同失敗更加 強了這個必要。 本研究的題目是現代俄國的三個主要政治思想派： 自由主義、 左派社會 主義及保守派。而後包括兩個派 ，就是以東正教為主的政治思想本研究包含上述的政治派及其多數的變化，作者研究途徑的基礎是他個人 所發揮的俄國政治文化理論，並且當代線化論與後現代政治理論。特別值得注意 地是後現代左派政治展望。 自由保守與左派政治的比較研究，弄清楚當代俄國的民主的社會性質，與 未來的發展。作者提出所謂預備民主的概念，來解釋目前俄國的民主社會作用。 這研究會對於比較政治理論做出一定的貢獻。 The research aims at describing and assessing the main political trends in contemporary Russia in view of their relation to the problem of national and cultural identity of Russians. The collapse of the USSR has created a necessity for the shaping of the new national identity in Russia. This necessity has become even more urgent because of popular discontent with the liberal reforms in the beginning of the 90s or at least the policy connected with these reforms. It is no exaggeration to say that the search for a new identity is the main political problem of contemporary Russian society. The proposed research will deal with three foremost factors in Russia』s identity politics: liberal, socialist (or leftist) and nationalist. The latter is especially gaining influence in modern Russia and has different guises: it is, firstly, the attempt to link national identity with the Orthodox tradition; secondly, it is so called Euarasian ideology (as well as a political party) which claims as the basis of Russian identity the specific unity of Western and Eastern cultures in Russia. This study will contain a comparative analysis of the above mentioned ideological trends with their many-sided variations. The ideological appeal and political prospects of each trend will be estimated against their common ground provided by Russia』s traditional political culture and specific traits of Russian mentality. Methodologically this study is based for the most part on the original theory of Russian civilization and its historical development developed by the author during his prolonged study of Russian cultural history as well as his comparative research on the Western and Eastern civilizations. The theory of modernization and the conceptual tools of the postmodern thought, especially contemporary debates of the meaning of leftist and conservative politics will also be taken into consideration and checked against the large amount of primary sources and empirical sociological data collected personally by the author and previously not used in the press. The study of liberal, socialist and conservative movements will serve as a means to assess the nature, political function and prospects of democratic institutions in contemporary in Russia. The author intends to put forth the original concept of democratic initiative, or 「preparatory democracy」 in Russia that can serve as a way to articulating the new Russian identity on the democratic basis. This approach provides useful clues for assessing the democratic development of Taiwanese society as well as many other Asian countries. It is expected that the results of this study will contribute to the better understanding of comparative politics and the nature of evolving democracy in non-western societies.