Because of the decline of birthrate and over supply of pre-service teachers, numerous teacher preparation programs have shown shrinkage in Taiwan. The intentions of students to select the programs have diminished reflecting on their scores of the united entrance examination in different universities. The purpose of this study is to examine the issues and the connections between student engagement and learning performance in teacher preparation programs under current situation. Given this purpose, this study selected 330 students in junior as target group. The validated samples are 328, it represents 99% response rate in 6 normal or education universities in Taiwan. The measurement of this study includes students’ family backgrounds, student engagement, and learning performance. Family backgrounds include (a) parents-student relationship and (b) students’ socioeconomic status. Student engagement has been defined as (a) behavioral engagement, (b) emotional engagement, and (c) cognitive engagement following the related literature. Student learning effects will focus on (a) academic performance, (b) students’ satisfaction, and (c) students’ identification. The regression models were used to test the hypotheses of the models to further explain the issues of student learning. This study compared the gender difference, family background difference in students’ engagement patterns and their learning outcomes. The results of regression models provide more detail information to explain the linkages and their impacts on the key factors. The findings provide some suggestions to ameliorate the problems of learning and teaching in teacher preparation programs.