Although supplier involvement in new product development (NPD) projects has become increasingly important for strengthening a firm's competitive position, few studies have investigated the impact of changing research and development (R&D) workloads in NPD. According to the level of design-related characteristics including design-related communication and design-related nature, we identify four types of supplier–manufacturer relationships: sequential mode, passive supplier involvement, active supplier involvement, and strategic development. Differing from qualitative and survey-oriented research, this study proposes a system dynamics model for the quantitative exploration of workload impacts on R&D-system equilibrium under different supplier–manufacturer relationships. We justify experimentally the NPD performances of these supplier–manufacturer relationship configurations under workload impacts and provide managerial insights.
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 82(11), pp.2096-2108