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    Title: 新社會風險下的福利改革 : 以西班牙公共年金為例
    Other Titles: Welfare reform in new social risks : the example of public pension system in Spain
    Authors: 邸馨儀;Di, Hsin-Yi
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    趙美盈
    Keywords: 西班牙;年金制度;新社會風險;Spain;Pension System;New Social Risk
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2012-06-21 06:57:23 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 2009年12月,全球三大信評機構之一的惠譽調降希臘主權債信評級,引爆了歐盟國家主權債信危機,也讓葡萄牙、義大利及西班牙等國家的政府債務危機浮現出台面上。債務危機持續擴大已成為歐元區創立以來的最大挑戰。國際社會與市場普遍擔憂西班牙因2010年財政赤字占GDP 9.8%,房地產泡沫,財務狀況極可能持續惡化而成為下一個需援助的國家。西班牙政府於2011年提出積極的財政改革計畫,其中以年金改革為降低政府支出最重要的措施。
    年金保險為社會保險中的一環,為政府推行的社會政策,利用風險分擔的原理用以對抗集體確定及不確定的風險,對於可能造成收入中斷的意外事故來提供給付藉以保障人民經濟生活的安全,由政府提供的年金給付為大多數的國民提供長期性的經濟支柱,也是保障國民經濟安全的重要措施。 但是隨著全球化以及社會變遷的衝擊下,人口老化、失業率居高不下、嚴重的人口比例的失衡、傳統家庭照顧的快速衰微以及經濟惡化等問題打擊著西班牙現行年金制度的缺陷及永續性也引發了新的社會風險,導致西班牙政府必須進行改革來強化年金保險財務穩定成為最急迫的議題之一。年金制度的改革攸關人民福利,使得政府縮減預算的同時也要兼顧民意的支持,然而要如何制定出令人民滿意又能彌補現在的財政赤字的改革方案著實考驗著西班牙執政黨的智慧。
    自90年代開始,福利國家危機已是一個全球性的議題,除了福利國家原有制度引發的危機之外,政策學者如Taylor-Gooby等人開始以「新社會風險」或是「新風險」來表示在典型的後工業社會中進行政策考量所面對的風險環境來討論社會政策。有鑒於此,本研究重點為瞭解西班牙公共年金制度之設計;除了舊有制度引發的危機之外所面對的新社會風險挑戰以及西班牙政府改革之成效。
    In December, 2009, one of of the three biggest global credit agency Fitch Ratings downgraded Greece''s sovereign credit rating, and broke out sovereign debt crisis in EU countries, the government of Portugal, Italy and Spain have problems with debt crisis resurfacing as well. The debt crisis continues to expand and become the biggest challenge to the Eurozone. The international community and the markets worries that Spain may be the next need a bailout, as a result of 2010 deficit accounted for 9.8% of GDP, Housing Bubble and the financial situation seem to keep on going down. Spain’s government proposed fiscal reform plan actively in 2011, including the reform of pension is the most important measures to reduce government expenditures.
    The public pension system is a part of the social security and social policy that use of the principle of sharing the risk to fight the certain or uncertain risk may be caused income interruption by an accident. To protect the safety of the people''s economic life. Pension system provided long-term economic pillar by the Government for the majority of people, is also an important measure to protect economic security of people. However, with the impact of globalization and social change, an aging population, high unemployment, a serious imbalance proportion of the population, the rapid decline of the traditional family care and economic deterioration against defects and sustainability of the current pension system in Spain, also led to new social risks and the Spain’s government must reforme the pension system that strengthen financial stability become one of the most urgent issue. The reform of the pension system is related to the people’s benefit, Spain’s government has to give consideration to the budget cut and the public opinion, however, how to plan on reform policy which not only makes people satisfy but also makes up the budget deficit test the wisdom of the ruling party indeed.
    Since the 1990s, the welfare state crisis has been a global issue, in addition to the crisis caused by the original system, policy scholars such as Taylor-Gooby who began to present the risk environment faced by the policy considerations expressed to discuss social policy in the typical post-industrial society as "New Social Risks" or "New Risk". For this reason, this study focuses on understanding the design of the Spanish public pension system, not only the crisis caused by the old system but also faced the new social risks and challenges, and the effects of the reform.
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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