|摘要: ||2009年12月，全球三大信評機構之一的惠譽調降希臘主權債信評級，引爆了歐盟國家主權債信危機，也讓葡萄牙、義大利及西班牙等國家的政府債務危機浮現出台面上。債務危機持續擴大已成為歐元區創立以來的最大挑戰。國際社會與市場普遍擔憂西班牙因2010年財政赤字占GDP 9.8％，房地產泡沫，財務狀況極可能持續惡化而成為下一個需援助的國家。西班牙政府於2011年提出積極的財政改革計畫，其中以年金改革為降低政府支出最重要的措施。|
In December, 2009, one of of the three biggest global credit agency Fitch Ratings downgraded Greece''s sovereign credit rating, and broke out sovereign debt crisis in EU countries, the government of Portugal, Italy and Spain have problems with debt crisis resurfacing as well. The debt crisis continues to expand and become the biggest challenge to the Eurozone. The international community and the markets worries that Spain may be the next need a bailout, as a result of 2010 deficit accounted for 9.8% of GDP, Housing Bubble and the financial situation seem to keep on going down. Spain’s government proposed fiscal reform plan actively in 2011, including the reform of pension is the most important measures to reduce government expenditures.
The public pension system is a part of the social security and social policy that use of the principle of sharing the risk to fight the certain or uncertain risk may be caused income interruption by an accident. To protect the safety of the people''s economic life. Pension system provided long-term economic pillar by the Government for the majority of people, is also an important measure to protect economic security of people. However, with the impact of globalization and social change, an aging population, high unemployment, a serious imbalance proportion of the population, the rapid decline of the traditional family care and economic deterioration against defects and sustainability of the current pension system in Spain, also led to new social risks and the Spain’s government must reforme the pension system that strengthen financial stability become one of the most urgent issue. The reform of the pension system is related to the people’s benefit, Spain’s government has to give consideration to the budget cut and the public opinion, however, how to plan on reform policy which not only makes people satisfy but also makes up the budget deficit test the wisdom of the ruling party indeed.
Since the 1990s, the welfare state crisis has been a global issue, in addition to the crisis caused by the original system, policy scholars such as Taylor-Gooby who began to present the risk environment faced by the policy considerations expressed to discuss social policy in the typical post-industrial society as "New Social Risks" or "New Risk". For this reason, this study focuses on understanding the design of the Spanish public pension system, not only the crisis caused by the old system but also faced the new social risks and challenges, and the effects of the reform.