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    题名: 德國毒品防治之研究 : 從全球治理角度論析
    其它题名: The study of illicit drugs prevention in Germany : from perspective of global governance
    作者: 梁詠翔;Liang, Yung-Shiang
    贡献者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    郭秋慶;Kuo, Chiu-ching
    关键词: 毒品防治;全球化;歐盟;聯合國;非政府組織;Illicit Drugs Prevention;Globalization;EU;UN;Non-government Organization
    日期: 2012
    上传时间: 2012-06-21 06:57:08 (UTC+8)
    摘要:   全球化的腳步帶動了國際之間國家的互動速度,因此衍生出的問題也漸漸浮出檯面。傳統上德國處理毒品問題主要只需要著重在對於吸食者與販賣者之刑罰,然而這只是治標不治本。而在歐盟不斷的緊密合作與擴大之下,跨國性的毒品相關犯罪則是日益嚴重,也超過了一國內政所能夠應付的規模。而歐盟會員國單一市場四大流通之下,若是沒有相關的毒品問題因應措施,則德國內部會形同門戶洞開,嚴重受到毒品的侵害。國際上已開發國家儼然形成了毒品消費的市場,特別是美國與歐洲地區。

      而在全球化的毒品問題下德國內部開始對於舊有的毒品政策重新思考,將毒品問題分為兩類:(一)將毒品問題的源頭,也就是毒品生產或加工的區域視為毒品防治最主要的重點,並且對於毒品販運者則透過法律制裁,防止毒品直接進入德國;(二)針對吸食毒品的人口進行治療與輔導,將毒癮視為是一種疾病,而並非完全是以犯罪行為來處理。此外在歐盟區域層次當中,會員國之間也開啟了在毒品問題上的內政司法合作機制,並且在歐盟不斷的深化合作下形成在處理毒品問題上的法令規範。在全球的舞台上,德國也致力於推動國際毒品合作的參與以及推動聯合國以及其他國際反毒機構所形成的毒品防治公約,並且亦透過歐盟的架構對於毒品問題。在次國家層級的德國各邦政府形成了德國內部毒品防治之前線。在政府體制之外的毒品相關非政府組織以及企業也形成了德國以及歐盟公民與政府在毒品防治上的媒介角色。
    Globalization has acted as a impulse to encourage international interaction between countries and areas, but it also causes some international problems which cannot be solved by any single country, one of them is illicit drugs. Germany traditionally deals with illicit drug problems through penalties for drug abusers and traffickers; however this is only a temporary solution and can not totally combat illicit drug crimes. With the European Union’s fifth enlargement and the 4 free movements in single market, the illicit drug crime has became a cross-border issue, especially in Europe and the United States.

    Under the globalization background, Germany starts to reinvestigate the drug problems through traditional drug policy perspective and concludes the drug problems into two categories. First is to aim at the source of the drug and starts to tackle on the regions where drugs are produced as the main prevention focus. Second, via legal sanction, Germany stops any types of illicit drug being transported to Germany directly and deals with drug addiction with treatment and counseling, and defines it as a disease, rather than a crime.

    At the EU regional level, 27 Member States also set up a judicial cooperation mechanisms of drug problem as internal affairs, and legal regulations as well. At the international level, Germany and EU are both important participators of the international drug cooperation, and implement drug-related Convention regulated by the United Nations and other international anti-drug Regimes. States of Germany (Land) play its role as front line of the internal drug prevention. There are also many drug-related NGOs in Germany, EU and in the World, which play a media role in drug prevention.
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