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    Title: 哥倫比亞童兵問題之研究(1990-2011)
    Other Titles: Studies of child soldiers in Colombia (1990-2011)
    Authors: 林佳諭;Lin, Chia-Yu
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    王秀琦;Wang, Hsiu-Chi
    Keywords: 哥倫比亞;童兵;兒童人權;哥倫比亞革命武裝力量;準軍事團體;Colombia;Child soldiers;Human rights on child;Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia;Paramilitary
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2012-06-21 06:56:26 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 兒童參與戰爭並非從近代才開始的。在古埃及文明、古希臘以及聖經中,都能發現兒童參與戰爭的痕跡。任何一個國家,一旦處於長期戰爭的時候,當前線兵力耗盡時,往往會徵召未成年人前往戰場作戰。參考「聯合國兒童基金會」以及「終止使用童兵聯盟」的解釋,童兵是指18歲以下的兒童,參與任何正規或非正規武裝部隊或武裝團體,包括當戰鬥員、埋設地雷和爆炸物、當誘餌、後勤支援工作、搬運工、哨兵、間諜、傳訊員、廚師、雜工以及被迫結婚或被派在司令官身旁作為保鑣與人肉盾牌的女童。
    哥倫比亞是目前拉丁美洲唯一有內戰的國家。自1964年哥倫比亞革命武裝力量成立至今,游擊隊問題已經存在將近50年,估計約有20萬人死於哥國政府與游擊隊、民兵團體的武裝衝突。起源於意識形態差異的哥倫比亞國內衝突,隨時間的演變成為毒品貿易以及領土控制的爭奪。目前哥倫比亞境內有40%的國土被游擊隊的控制。在哥倫比亞,未滿18歲的兒童在生活上要面臨許多挑戰。由於武裝衝突而被迫遷移,流離失所、綁架、捲入街頭報復戰爭以及軍事清剿行動。其中最大的威脅是被迫成為童兵上戰場作戰。在拉丁美洲的哥倫比亞估共計約有11,000名到14,000名兒童參與了左翼游擊隊、右翼準軍事團體與政府軍之間的戰爭。
    要讓童兵重新融入社會,是一個複雜且長期的課題。聯合國和非政府組織正在世界各地努力減輕貧困,改善教育及就業機會,並為兒童參與地區和國家的發展建立管道。這些努力是實現未來和平與安全所不可或缺的。
    The participation of children in war doesn’t begin from modern times, and it could be traced back from the civilization of ancient Egypt, ancient Greece and the Bible. Any country, which is facing a long-timed war, its troops is going to be exhausted, and during that time it will often recruit children to get into the battlefield. According to interpretation of child soldiers of UNICEF and the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, children who are under the age of 18, participate in any regular or irregular armed groups, including combatants, bombers of mines, baits, logistics, porters, sentries, spies, messengers, cooks, laborers and some of them are forced into the marriage with the commander or to be bodyguards and shields for the commander.
    Colombia is currently the only country of Latin American which has civil war. Since Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia was founded in 1964, the problem of guerrilla already existed for nearly 50 years, it’s estimated that about 20 million people died in the armed conflict between Colombia government, the guerrillas and paramilitary. It’s originated from ideological differences and the Colombian internal conflict, and things could be different as time goes by that it finally became the struggle territorial control. Nearly 40 percent of territory in Colombia has controlled by the guerrillas. In Colombia, children who are under 18 years old have to face many challenges in their daily lives. As a result of armed conflict, children forced migration, displacement, kidnapping and get involved with street retaliatory war and military crackdown. The biggest threat is forced to become child soldiers on the battlefield. In Latin America, Colombia is estimated that about 11,000 to 14,000 children get involved with the war between in left-wing guerrillas, right-wing paramilitary and government army.
    Making child soldiers to reintegrate into society is a complicated and long-term issue. The United Nations and NGOs over the world spare no efforts to alleviate poverty, improve education and employment opportunities, and establish pipeline for children to participate in the development of regions and countries. These efforts are trying to achieve a future of peace and security which are indispensable.
    Appears in Collections:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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