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    題名: 礦冶業於秘魯拉奧羅亞環境污染之研究(1922年至2010年)
    其他題名: Studies of the pollution of La Oroya in Peru by mining industry (1922-2010)
    作者: 陳宗賢;Chen, Chung-Hsien
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    王秀琦
    關鍵詞: 秘魯;拉奧羅亞;污染;環境正義;Peru;La Oroya;Pollution;Environmental justice
    日期: 2012
    上傳時間: 2012-06-21 06:56:24 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 秘魯自殖民時期以來,以農業及礦業為主要經濟活動,尤其是礦業,更是主要吸引外國投資之產業。以2007年資料顯示,當年度秘魯的銅儲量為5790萬噸,佔世界總儲量的11.8%,居世界第二位;鋅儲量為1820萬噸,佔世界總量的10%,居世界第三位;鉛儲量350萬噸,占世界總量的4.4%;銀儲量為3萬6,000噸,佔世界總量的13.3%;黃金儲量為3000噸,佔世界總量的8.3%。主要貿易對象遍及全球,包括美國、日本、歐洲及其他拉美等國。據估計,秘魯全國礦藏總面積達到5400萬公頃,占國土面積的43%。
    自1922開始,原位於塞羅德帕斯科的同名跨國礦業公司(La Cerro de Pasco Corporation),進駐秘魯中部山區的礦冶城鎮-拉奧羅亞(La Oroya),開始對當地造成嚴重的環境污染。透過冶煉廠巨大煙囪排出廢氣下,對拉奧羅亞鎮的空氣、水及土壤進行重金屬污染,導致在三項環境中,重金屬含量幾乎皆超出標準值。在這樣的情況下,也讓當地居民身處於毒害之中。面對空氣、水及土壤都含有超標的毒物,對於弱勢族群,如孕婦及嬰幼兒的身體內之血鉛值進行檢測,而大部分的受測者,血鉛值也都高出法定的標準值,生命面臨嚴重威脅。
    本論文主要想研究秘魯拉奧羅亞鎮受污染之程度,得以了解居民生活之困難及面臨之環境危害,並以「環境正義」為理論,檢驗該地區是否達成環境正義理論之要求,以及當地現今之狀況。
    Since the colonial period, the main economic activities were agriculture and mining in Peru, especially mining, it is mainly to attract foreign investment in industry. In 2007, Peru produced the copper 57.9 million tons, accounting for 11.8% of the total reserves in the world, ranking second in the world; produced zinc 18.2 million tons, accounting for 10% of the world; produced lead 3.5 million tons, accounting for 4.4 percent of the world; produced silver 36,000 tons, accounting for 13.3 percent of the world; produced gold 3,000 tons, accounting for 8.3 of the world. The main trade partners throughout the world, including the United States, Japan, Europe and other Latin American countries. It is estimated that the national mineral resources of the total area of 54 million hectares, accounting for 43% of the total land area.
    Since 1922, the multinational mining company that named La Cerro de Pasco Corporation was located in Cerro de Pasco, stationed in La Oroya where locates in the mountains of Peru, and began to cause serious local environmental pollution. Through the huge smelter chimney, the air, water and soil of the town have been suffered from heavy metal pollution, resulting that they have exceeded the standard of the world, so that in such situation, the local residents have been suffered from the pollution. To face the air, water and soil with excessive amounts of poison for the minority, such as the level of blood which has contained lead were detected in the body of pregnants and infants, and most of the testees, the levels are higher than the statutory standard and lives are their facing this serious threat.
    This thesis analyzed the study of contamination of La Oroya, in order to understand the difficulties of local residents and to face the environmental hazards, and by using the theory of "environmental justice", to examine whether the region achieve it or not, as well as the local situation nowadays.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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