自1922開始，原位於塞羅德帕斯科的同名跨國礦業公司（La Cerro de Pasco Corporation），進駐秘魯中部山區的礦冶城鎮－拉奧羅亞（La Oroya），開始對當地造成嚴重的環境污染。透過冶煉廠巨大煙囪排出廢氣下，對拉奧羅亞鎮的空氣、水及土壤進行重金屬污染，導致在三項環境中，重金屬含量幾乎皆超出標準值。在這樣的情況下，也讓當地居民身處於毒害之中。面對空氣、水及土壤都含有超標的毒物，對於弱勢族群，如孕婦及嬰幼兒的身體內之血鉛值進行檢測，而大部分的受測者，血鉛值也都高出法定的標準值，生命面臨嚴重威脅。
Since the colonial period, the main economic activities were agriculture and mining in Peru, especially mining, it is mainly to attract foreign investment in industry. In 2007, Peru produced the copper 57.9 million tons, accounting for 11.8% of the total reserves in the world, ranking second in the world; produced zinc 18.2 million tons, accounting for 10% of the world; produced lead 3.5 million tons, accounting for 4.4 percent of the world; produced silver 36,000 tons, accounting for 13.3 percent of the world; produced gold 3,000 tons, accounting for 8.3 of the world. The main trade partners throughout the world, including the United States, Japan, Europe and other Latin American countries. It is estimated that the national mineral resources of the total area of 54 million hectares, accounting for 43% of the total land area.
Since 1922, the multinational mining company that named La Cerro de Pasco Corporation was located in Cerro de Pasco, stationed in La Oroya where locates in the mountains of Peru, and began to cause serious local environmental pollution. Through the huge smelter chimney, the air, water and soil of the town have been suffered from heavy metal pollution, resulting that they have exceeded the standard of the world, so that in such situation, the local residents have been suffered from the pollution. To face the air, water and soil with excessive amounts of poison for the minority, such as the level of blood which has contained lead were detected in the body of pregnants and infants, and most of the testees, the levels are higher than the statutory standard and lives are their facing this serious threat.
This thesis analyzed the study of contamination of La Oroya, in order to understand the difficulties of local residents and to face the environmental hazards, and by using the theory of "environmental justice", to examine whether the region achieve it or not, as well as the local situation nowadays.