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    Title: 墨西哥販毒集團之研究
    Other Titles: Studies of Mexican drug cartels
    Authors: 林蕙芳;Lin, Hui-Fang
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    陳小雀
    Keywords: 墨西哥;毒品;販毒集團;毒梟;古茲曼;卡爾德隆;讓我們照亮墨西哥;梅里達倡議;天人交戰;Mexico;Drug;Cartel;Drug lord;Joaquin Guzman;Felipe Calderon;Iluminemos Mexico;Merida Initiative;Traffic
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2012-06-21 06:56:21 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 墨西哥長期壟罩在毒品的陰影之下,無論是墨西哥本身還是鄰近的美國,皆深受其害。毒品問題不僅使墨國的治安敗壞,對人民的生活和生命安全形成嚴重的威脅,也成為國際之間棘手的問題。毒品問題亦導致墨西哥的國際地位下降,國際經濟競爭力更是每下愈況。因此,毒品所導致各層面的問題皆不容小覷。
    2006年12月,卡爾德隆總統上台後,立即展開大規模的掃毒行動,並將打擊暴力犯罪和販毒組織,作為施政的首要目標。但在如此大張旗鼓的行動下,卻引發了更嚴重的後果。毒梟對無辜民眾及警察官員慘無人道的虐殺,導致自2006年底之後,墨國因毒品問題而死亡的人數急遽上升。民眾於2008年8月30日,舉行「讓我們照亮墨西哥」的和平示威遊行,引起各界對毒品問題更加關注。
    墨西哥販毒集團崛起於1960年代,當時的美國社會正逢需要大量毒品的時期,因此墨西哥開始興起了毒品走私的行業,歷史、社會和地理三種背景因素,形成販毒集團不可或缺的養分。至今,墨西哥販毒集團權勢之大,已足以對抗政府和軍隊,成為美墨兩國最急欲解決之問題。而農民與貪污的警政官員也與販毒集團密不可分,在兩者的幫助下,販毒集團更加堅不可摧。
    墨西哥和美國政府自1970年代開始,對於毒品採用「零容忍政策」,投注大量經費在阻斷毒品來源,來消弭毒品所造成的社會問題,以查緝毒品之方式為主,將涉及毒品製造、運輸及販賣之行為,視為刑事犯罪。然而毒品在美墨兩國的氾濫,至今仍無法獲得有效的控制,社會問題不減反增,已嚴重地影響國家和民眾的生命安全。
    本論文以研究墨西哥之販毒集團為主軸,對於「販毒集團興起之因素」、「勢力發展與犯罪行為」、「販毒集團之共犯結構」、「販毒集團與毒品造成之社會問題」進行探究,並解析美墨政府打擊毒品成效不彰的根本原因。
    Mexico has suffered from serious drug problem for a long time, and its neighboring country, the United States, alike. The drug problem not only corrupts domestic public security and threatens people’s living and safety, but also becomes an international thorny issue. Furthermore, the drug problem degrades Mexico’s international status and undermines its international economic competitiveness. Therefore, it cannot underestimate the problems that drugs have caused to all levels.
    President Calderon launched large-scale drug raids right after his inauguration in December 2006, and aimed to fight against violence and drug trafficking organization as his principal policy objectives. However, such enormous action then resulted in severer consequences. The rate of death population has sharply increased from late 2006 on due to the drug dealers’ cruel slaughtering to innocent people, policemen, and officials. Afterward, Mexican people held peaceful demonstrations named “Let’s illuminate Mexico” to arouse more attention to the drug problem.
    Mexican drug cartels rise in the 1960s. They began to smuggle drugs to the United States owing to the considerable demands of U.S. American society. There are three background factors (historical, social and geographical) that nourish drug trafficking organizations. Today, Mexican drug cartels are powerful enough to antagonize with government and troops, which has become the crucial problems both Mexican and the U.S. government most eagerly to solve. With the aids of farmers and corrupted policemen officials, Mexican drug cartels become more indestructible.
    Since the 1970s, Mexico and the U.S. governments began to use an anti-drug policy named “zero tolerance policy.” They have made great investment on blocking the source of drug to eliminate the social problems that caused by drugs. They mainly investigate the circulation of drugs. Drug manufacturing, drug trafficking, and drug dealing are regarded as criminal. However, the drug problems cannot be well-controlled both in drug-overwhelmed U.S.A. and Mexico. Social problems increase apparently, and they do threaten national safety and people’s living.
    Research on Mexican drug cartels is the core of this thesis, and focuses on “the main factors of drug trafficking originations’ rising”, “power expansion and criminal action”, “the accomplices of drug cartels”, “the social problems caused by drug cartels and drugs”. And eventually, analyzes on the fundamental reasons that Mexican and U.S. American government’s ineffectiveness on striking drugs problems.
    Appears in Collections:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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