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    题名: 巴西無地農民運動之現象研究
    其它题名: The study of the phenomena of Brazil's landless workers' movement
    作者: 張俊德;Chang, Chun-Te
    贡献者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    陳小雀
    关键词: 巴西;新社會運動;農村勞工;無地;教育;暴力;Brazil;New social movement;Rural Worker;Landless;education;violence
    日期: 2012
    上传时间: 2012-06-21 06:56:19 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 進入21世紀之後,巴西在國際舞台上已成為「金磚四國」的成員之一,它本身除了擁有富饒的物產資源之外,也擁有充沛的人力資源,是一個具有發展實力的國家。然而,儘管巴西成為一個新興強國,其國內卻面臨嚴重的社會問題,例如:貧富不均以及土地集中。在巴西,隨著經濟的發展,有錢人過著富裕生活而窮人過著貧困生活。此外,僅少數的大地主擁有全國近半的土地,而大多數的窮人卻沒有土地或是土地所有權。

    社會運動指的是一個團體進行某種目標性的以及計畫性的共謀行動,目的是為了改變社會整個或部分的現象,並經由集體行為以較持久性的工作加以改變社會。藉由社會運動,弱勢團體或是被壓迫的群體可以對抗不公平的待遇以及改變他們的社會地位。新社會運動理論則強調對價值、觀念、文化與生活方式等自由權利的爭取。此外,新社會運動是多元性的並且尊重異質文化,它非科層組織的型態,而是重視一個由下而上的觀念。巴西無地農村勞工為了解決日常的生活困境以及提升社會地位,他們在1984年正式成立巴西無地農民運動並開始為他們目標展開抗爭。

    本論文主要以新社會運動理論的觀點、歷史研究法與文獻分析法等途徑加以探討成立巴西無地農民運動的背景因素,並深入分析它的整體發展,以及在發展的過程中所遭遇的困境與挑戰。整體而言,巴西無地農民運動的發展符合新社會運動理論的特徵。
    After entering 21st century, Brazil has become one member of the“BRICs”in the international society. It not only has rich natural resources but also abundant human resources, and that shows Brazil owning great potential of development. However, even though Brazil has become an important emerging country, it encounters several serious social problems, such as unequal wealth distribution and land concentration. In Brazil, with the economic development, the rich men live in a luxurious life but the poor people live a miserable life. In addition, only fewer landowners own nearly half the land of entire country, but most poor people neither own land nor possess the property right of land.

    Social movement means a group which use collusive actions with some objectives and plans to change entire or part of social phenomenon, and also use persistent collective actions to change the society. With social movements, the disadvantaged groups or the oppressed groups could fight against the unfair treatment and change their social status. New social movement theory emphasizes the struggle for rights and freedoms of values, concepts, cultures and lifestyles. Besides, new social movements are pluralistic and respect to the heterogeneous culture, and they are not bureaucratic organization model but value the concept of bottom-up. In order to resolve problems in daily life and elevate the social status, the landless rural workers in Brazil officially organized the Brazil’s Landless Rural Workers Movement in 1984 and began to struggle for their objectives.

    This thesis principally based on the views of new social movement theory and the approaches of the historical research method and the archival research method to discover the factors and backgrounds for the foundation of Brazil’s Landless Rural Workers Movement, meanwhile analyze its overall development deeply and the dilemmas and challenges which it occurred in the process of its development. As a whole, through the research of its development, we recognize the Brazil’s Landless Rural Workers Movement corresponds with major features of new social movement theory.
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