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    Title: 阿根廷"攔路者"(Piquetero)運動發展(1995-2007年)
    Other Titles: Development of Argentine Piquetero movement (1995-2007)
    Authors: 周炳男;Chou, Ping Nan
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    王秀琦;Wang, Elisa, Hsiu-chi
    Keywords: 攔路者;失業者;侍從主義;貝隆主義;Piquetero;the unemployed;clientelism;Peronism
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2012-06-21 06:56:16 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 20世紀90年代阿根廷實施新自由主義經濟政策,加上國家治理不彰,導致失業及貧窮問題惡化,失業勞工遂組成「攔路者」(Piquetero)組織,藉封路、佔據公共場所及其他激烈方式等要求政府重視就業問題及提供更多社會救濟,隨著失學者、貧窮者及其他社會弱勢份子之加入,匯集成一股龐大反叛力量,影響力愈來愈大,使當政者不得不重視並處理攔路者問題。

    1995-2007年期間,攔路者組織運動先由失業者個體,發展成社區攔路者組織,透過各地區同質性團體及婦女、環保等非政府組織之溝聯,連結成跨地區及跨性質之完整結構網,再藉召集攔路者全國大會,匯集成全國性運動,聯合實施封路行動,困擾政府。在歷經四任總統期間,政府大致採妥協及鎮壓措施因應,但攔路者組織已學會如何利用封路施壓政府,獲取利益,故此運動未有銷聲匿跡現象。

    本研究以帕森斯之「社會行動體系」AGIL模式分析,發現攔路者組織對外以封路為集體行動,與政府、民眾及媒體相互調適過程中,趨向務實與和緩。對外目標追求上,實質目標為工作與社會福利,心理目標則為尊嚴與抗爭自由。在內部因素維持上,階級認同及集體行動則扮演重要角色,而政府賦予攔路者組織執行社會補助計畫,則提供攔路者整合滋生養分,導致本運動生生不息,持續困擾阿根廷發展。
    In 1990s, the implementation of neoliberal economic policy and failed state governance in Argentina deteriorated the situation of unemployment as well as poverty at that time, which gradually motivated the unemployed united as Piquetero, asking the government to solve the grave problem of employment and provide more social subsidies by means of blocking streets, occupying public occasions and any other aggressive methods. Along with the school leavers, the poor and other social disadvantaged groups taking part in, the government could not but reconsider seriously how the rebellion force and impact of Piquetero had brought.

    During 1995 to 2007, the Piquetero movements were at first ignited by unemployed individuals who then developed as a group within community and by linking homogeneous groups and non-profit organizations else like female, environmental groups they were rapidly converted into a comprehensive interregional and multifunctional network of which convocation of general convention output into a nationwide blockage action and negatively harassed Argentine government. Over the four Presidencies, the government used to compromise or quell the Piquetero’s movements; however, the Piquetero organization also learned how to effectively give pressure on the government and obtain benefit from blocking streets; hence, the Piquetero movements still remained until these days.

    This study uses the AGIL analysis models by Talcott Parsons’ Social Action System and concludes that Piquetero group adopts blockage as external collective action, their position has tended to be more pragmatic and mild during the interaction among the government, the public and the mass media. They publicly demanded the improvement of labor and social conditions while taking the fight for dignity and liberty as their psychological goal. In contrast, the hierarchy identity and collective action were essential factors amid the organization, further the government conceded the Piquetero’s organization to enforce social subsidy programs also made them more integrated and continued growing, which kept blocking Argentina on the way of development.
    Appears in Collections:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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