|其他題名: ||Development of Argentine Piquetero movement (1995-2007)|
|作者: ||周炳男;Chou, Ping Nan|
王秀琦;Wang, Elisa, Hsiu-chi
|關鍵詞: ||攔路者;失業者;侍從主義;貝隆主義;Piquetero;the unemployed;clientelism;Peronism|
|上傳時間: ||2012-06-21 06:56:16 (UTC+8)|
In 1990s, the implementation of neoliberal economic policy and failed state governance in Argentina deteriorated the situation of unemployment as well as poverty at that time, which gradually motivated the unemployed united as Piquetero, asking the government to solve the grave problem of employment and provide more social subsidies by means of blocking streets, occupying public occasions and any other aggressive methods. Along with the school leavers, the poor and other social disadvantaged groups taking part in, the government could not but reconsider seriously how the rebellion force and impact of Piquetero had brought.
During 1995 to 2007, the Piquetero movements were at first ignited by unemployed individuals who then developed as a group within community and by linking homogeneous groups and non-profit organizations else like female, environmental groups they were rapidly converted into a comprehensive interregional and multifunctional network of which convocation of general convention output into a nationwide blockage action and negatively harassed Argentine government. Over the four Presidencies, the government used to compromise or quell the Piquetero’s movements; however, the Piquetero organization also learned how to effectively give pressure on the government and obtain benefit from blocking streets; hence, the Piquetero movements still remained until these days.
This study uses the AGIL analysis models by Talcott Parsons’ Social Action System and concludes that Piquetero group adopts blockage as external collective action, their position has tended to be more pragmatic and mild during the interaction among the government, the public and the mass media. They publicly demanded the improvement of labor and social conditions while taking the fight for dignity and liberty as their psychological goal. In contrast, the hierarchy identity and collective action were essential factors amid the organization, further the government conceded the Piquetero’s organization to enforce social subsidy programs also made them more integrated and continued growing, which kept blocking Argentina on the way of development.