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    Title: 中共載人太空船制天能力虛實
    Other Titles: The capacity of space command of manned spacecraft
    Authors: 林原鋐;Lin, Yuan-Hong
    Contributors: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士在職專班
    曾復生
    Keywords: 載人太空船;制天權;虛實;manned space ship;space-control righ;true or false
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2012-06-21 06:55:40 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 二次波灣戰爭中,美、英聯軍運用「戰區聯合作戰指揮管制作為」有效統合三軍部隊兵火力,發揮精準打擊,短時間內即獲決定性勝利,全世界軍事評論家自「第一次波灣戰爭」後,即預判未來作戰型態將以高科技武器裝備與全新的戰略、戰術與戰法構想,未來作戰將是打一場天、空、地、海、信息、電磁等多樣式的綜合戰爭。同時也意識到未來的航太武力並非單純的僅限空權,將延伸為「藉由空間奪取」,也就是發展航太武力以「制天權」奪取的航太大戰型態。
    中共自1960年代開始發展載人太空飛行計畫,初期定名為「七一四工程」,惟囿於當時經濟、科技技術、工藝能力不足,加上文化大革命影響,載人太空飛行計畫終止於1975年,轉而將資源投入發展各類應用衛星。而1986年3月在數位元老級科學家提出「要跟蹤世界先進水準,發展國家高科學技術」之建議下,批准「八六三計畫綱要」,以發展七個高科技項目,航太科技便是其中一項。稱為「九二一工程」的載人太空船計畫於1992年正式展開,確立了三個載人航太發展階段。第一階段實現太空人出艙行動;第二階段發展太空飛行器交會對接技術;第三為建立太空實驗室,這都是中共逐次建立太空戰力的重要指標與目的。
    中共於2011年9月29日發射「天宮一號」目標飛行器和2011年11月1日發射「神舟八號」太空船,並於2011年11月3日實現首次空間飛行器無人交會對接飛行試驗。根據1992年中國正式提出的載人航太三步走計畫,中國已經完成「上天」、「出艙」及首次無人航天器交會對接、分離等技術,而第三步即是建立「小型空間站」,而中共載人航太工程下一階段任務,是載人進行空間交會對接技術,這項技術由「神舟九號」或「神舟十號」載人太空船與「天宮一號」目標飛行器完成。
    In the second Gulf War, coalition force from the United States and the Britain implemented the plan of joint operation command and control in theater to win the decisive victory in a short time by integrating the tri-services firepower efficiently and conducting precise attack. After the first Gulf war, the world military commentators anticipated that the high technology weapon and new strategic, tactical, technical method would be applied into future operations. The future operations will be a varied and combined operations involved with space, air, ground, sea, information, and electronics. Simultaneously, the future aerospace force is realized not only by the power of air but by the power of space-seizing in further. In other words, that is to develop the aerospace force to seize victory in the aerospace operations by the capacity of aerospace.
    PRC has developed the manned space aviation plan, named seven-one-four project since 1960. The project was stopped in 1975 because of the recession of economy, the inabilities of technology and science at that time, plus, the influence of the cultural revolution. The resource of the project was changed to invest in developing all kinds of satellite applications. On March, 1986, several veterans of science suggested that China follow the standard of the world and develop national high technology. The government authorized the eight-six-three program to develop seven high technologies, including the aerospace technology, which was named the night-two-one project. The manned space ship of night-two-one project was kicked off in1992 and established three phrases for manned aerospace project. First phase is to carry off the action for the astronauts to walk out of the space ship ; the second phase is to develop the docking technique of space aviation modular; the third phase is to build up a space laboratory. The three phases are critical index and aim of PRC to establish gradually the aerospace power.
    Tiangong 1 launched on Sep.29, 2011 and the space ship, Shenzhou 8,launched on Nov. 1,2011 successfully docked with each other on Nov. 3, 2011. This was the first time that PRC conducted the experiment successfully on the connection of space aviation objects. According to the three phases of night-two-one (manned space ship) project, PRC has accomplished the first two phases. The third phase is to establish a small space station. The next phase for PRC manned space project is to carry out the techniques on space rendezvous, orbital docking and undocking. The technique will soon be conducted by Shenzhou 9 or 10, and Tiangon1
    Appears in Collections:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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