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    Title: 中國大陸的稀土戰略
    Other Titles: Mainland China's rare-earth strategy
    Authors: 李弘儒;Lee, Hung-Ju
    Contributors: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
    王高成
    Keywords: 中國大陸;稀土金屬;中日釣魚台事件;資源外交;Mainland China;Rare-earth elements;the Pinnacle Islands dispute;Resource diplomacy
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2012-06-21 06:55:31 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 稀土(Rare-earth element, REE),用途相當廣泛,是高科技產業的關鍵原料。據統計,中國大陸擁有全球品項最多、品質精純、蘊藏總量最豐(43%)的稀土礦區。中國大陸自1990年起開始大幅開採境內稀土,2000年成為全球最大的稀土供給國。美國、日本等受惠於中國大陸大量生產的稀土,成為高科技產業國家,並建立豐厚的稀土戰略儲備。
    國際間因政治的對立以及對母國高附加價值工業的保護,美國等34個國家簽訂定的「瓦聖那協定」(The Wassenaar Arrangement),限制中國大陸在稀土提煉、研發與發展技術的取得,將其相關技術約束在低階技術層面。
    稀土金屬的高附加價值,以及國際間針對中國大陸訂立的限制,使得中國大陸興起效仿OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries,石油輸出國組織) 國家的構想:對於本國天然資源有壟斷、獨佔、定價權以及取得國際事務上更強而有力的影響力與發言權的構想。中國大陸利用控制稀土出口配額限制的策略,在2010年9月中日釣魚台事件中初試啼聲,也如預期的「震撼國際」。
    在中國大陸的外匯存底不斷增加、國內的冶煉技術不斷提升、高科技高附加價值產品研發銷售的前提下,可預期中國大陸將會在每個國際談判場合運用〈稀土戰術〉,以維護其自身國家利益。本研究的目的在探討:(一)、中國大陸目前所擁有的優勢,(二)、中國大陸採取稀土戰略的目的及相應的策略,(三)、國際諸國對於中國大陸稀土策略的因應方式,(四)、稀土策略運用後中國大陸會面臨的困境,以及(五)、探討中國大陸的稀土資源是否有可能形成類似OPEC國家一般的壟斷、寡占,進而獲取國際事務上的發言權及影響力。
    Rare earth elements (REEs) are used widely in high-technology and clean-energy products and a key component in a large assortment of advanced military and civilian technologies. According to statistics, Mainland China has the largest size of REEs ore. In 2000, China has become the world''s largest rare earth suppler, 97% of the world’s REEs were produced by China. The United States and Japan have become 100% reliant on imports REEs from China, and establishment of huge strategic reserves of REEs.
    Due to political opposition and the international protection of the home country of high value-added industries, the United States and other countries established “the Wassenaar Arrangement” on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies. This arrangement has restrictions China for develop high-level technology on REEs industries and keep China at the role of world REEs suppler. China has lost much wealth through the mass exporting of rare earth elements at low prices.
    Recently China rise the concept of establishes the REEs organization which cans monopoly of REEs resources, pricing and a powerful influence on international affairs. This idea is follow the example of OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries). In mid-September 2010, the dispute of Pinnacle Islands gives China an opportunity to practice the REEs strategy on Japan. China wins this negotiation under the strategy of restriction the rare earth export quota to Japan.
    China''s R & D technology has improved and Foreign exchange reserves increase, it can be expected that China will use REEs exports as a bargaining chip in each international negotiations in order to protect its own national interests. The purpose of this study was to analyze the advantage of China to use REEs as bargaining strategy, and the plight of China after the use of REEs strategy.
    Appears in Collections:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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