1978年中國大陸採取改革開放政策以來，隨著家庭聯產承包制的施行，人民公社作為政社合一、政企合一的農村集體經濟組織的管理體制越來越顯得不能適應，因為其原本統購統銷、分配日常用品等經濟糧食分配權力的喪失導致人民公社逐漸喪失其管理權威與治理農村的職能，而自1980年第一個村民委員會誕生，村民自治取代人民公社成為基層的主要管理體制，並在中國大陸農村發展了三十年。而村民自治這樣一個帶有民主色彩的管理體制要如何在共黨以黨領政這一個傳統價值下運作與發展？這是本文想要去了解的。 本文有四個研究目的： 1.分析中國大陸推動「村民自治」制度的背景與動力，及其發展歷程。 2.了解村民委員會的選舉方式與其發展過程。 3.比較中國基層選舉制度與西方的異同。 4.分析共黨領導與民主自治之間的互動關係。 本文在第二章中探討了村民自治在中國大陸發展的背景與過程，並從法律這一個層面來解讀中國官方對於村民自治所做出的具體規定。第三章中則按照時間序列研究中國農村的選舉制度及其演進並透過引用台大王業立教授所提出的選舉制度分類標準，從西方的選舉制度理論的角度解釋「海選」當中的「一步法」與「三步法」。第四章則分析探討中共官方對村民自治態度的轉折，尤其是在2002年提出並大幅改變村民自治生態的「兩委一肩挑」這一政策，並從政策配套與邏輯上歸納出不同於兩岸村民自治研究者的看法。 Since China adopted the policy of reform and opening up in1978, with the purposes of the household contract responsibility system, the people''s communes unity as a political community, rural collective economic organization of the management system becomes less politics and community united can not adapt to its originalpurchase and sale, distribution, daily necessities and other economic and food distribution loss of power causes people''s communes gradually lost its management authority and functions of governance in rural areas, the birth of a villagers ''committee since 1980, villagers'' democracy to replace the people''s communes to become a grass-roots management system, and development thirty years in China. The villagers'' democracy is a management system with a democratic value. So how to operation and development of the traditional values of the Communist Party to parties running the legislature? It is this article want to know. This research has four research purposes: (1) Analysis of China to promote the background and motivation of the villagers'' democracy system, and its course of development. (2) To understand the mode of election of villagers'' committees of their development process. (3) To compare the similarities and differences of the primary election system and the West. (4) To analysis of the interaction between the communist leadership and democracy. In the chapter 2 we discusse the background and process of the villagers'' democracy in the China, and from a legal aspect to interpret specific provisions of the Chinese officials made for the villagers'' democracy. Chapter 3, in accordance with the electoral system and the evolution of time-series study in China village. And reference from Professor Wang Yeh-Li(Taiwan University)the electoral system of classification criteria from the theoretical point of view of the electoral system of the West to explained Free-nomination model(Hai Xuan) among the "one-step "and" three-step model. Chapter 4 analyzes to explore the Chinese Communist official in 2002 and dramatically changed the ecology of villagers` democracy "two committees in one group” this policy. And from the views of the two sides of the matching policy and logical to made some different research.