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    題名: 歐巴馬時期美國對中共外交政策之研究(2009-2011)
    其他題名: The U.S. research for PRC's foreign policy when president Obama on stage from 2009 to 2011
    作者: 廖品睿;Liao, Ping-Rei
    貢獻者: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班
    潘錫堂
    關鍵詞: 巧實力;中美關係;軟實力;重返亞洲;smart power;the Relationship between PRC and U.S;Soft Power;Back to Asia
    日期: 2012
    上傳時間: 2012-06-21 06:50:21 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 珍珠港事件讓美國體認到不能採取姑息主義的政策來應付世界局勢的變化,因此美國決定加入第二次世界大戰結束戰局。韓戰與823砲戰讓美國協防台灣採取圍堵的政策防止共產勢力向外擴張。古巴飛彈危機讓美國與蘇聯的關係達到最緊張的狀態,甘迺迪總統的智慧讓危機一夕之間快速落幕。尼克森上台之後他派遣國家安全顧問季辛吉前往北京與周恩來進行會晤促成尼克森訪美,雙方於1972年簽屬上海公報達成正常化關係。1978年卡特總統宣布與中共簽屬建交公報同時與中華民國斷交,開啟了「中」美關係的另一項里程碑。老布希與柯林頓時期分別有天安門事件與擴大和交往政策讓兩個總統在歷史舞台上佔有一席之地,小布希時期將中共視為戰略競爭者直到911事件發生之後將中共轉變為戰略夥伴者開啟兩國合作空間。


    歐巴馬當選總統替美國帶來不一樣的氛圍,他的演講總是能夠吸引許多美國人的目光,他也是第一位使用網路科技來做為宣傳政策理念的美國總統。歐巴馬當選的原因是美國經濟在伊拉克與阿富汗戰爭之後一蹶不振,同時教育竟政利書給新興崛起的國家。希拉蕊提出巧實力做為美國外交政策方針,改變了美國在國際社會的形象同時也讓美國踏上不一樣的道路。


    2008年金融風暴改變了美國在國際社會的地位,同時反映出過時的金融體制不適合在國際社會生存,另一方面華盛頓與北京共識挑戰者兩種不同模式發展的經濟領導體制。北京奧運讓中共軟實力崛起也讓美國國際地位備受考驗也替「中」美關係添下不可預知的變數。歐巴馬與胡錦濤的互動可以為「中」美關係立下新的里程碑,雙方的互動在國際上形成了很大的關注,透過「中」美聯合聲明可以看出兩國針對政經議題與台灣問題上有共識同時可以讓國際社會了解兩國的互動,基本上這是對雙邊有良好的助益。


    美國在歐巴馬上台之後一方面透過戰略與對話機制與中共在經濟交流上面達成許多共識,這是讓雙方在經濟合作上面有更緊密的關係;然而希拉蕊提出重返亞洲的政策讓中共猶如芒刺在背,尤其是美韓聯合軍演、釣魚台事件、東協與南海衝突、希拉蕊出訪緬甸可以看出美國對中共是採取戰術上的包圍政策,因此可以看出美國對華政策是既聯合又鬥爭的手段來與中共進行交流,同時也表現獻出美國的霸權地位是不容許被其他國家挑戰和威脅。
    The attack on Pearl Harbor made the U.S. realized that they cannot take Isolationism to cope with the Changing situation of the world. Therefore, America decided to join in WWII in order to put an end to it. The Korean War and the 823 Artillery War made the USA to help defense Taiwan and to take Containment in Order to prevent the expansion of communist forces. The Cuba missile crisis made the relationship between America and the Soviet Union reached the highest tension, but President Kennedy’s wisdom put all the Dangers into an end. After Nixon took office he sent Henry Kissinger, the nation security adviser to Beijing to meet Zhou Enlai which made P. Both sides signed Shanghai Communiqué in 1972. In 1978, President Carter announced to establish diplomatic relationship with PRC while at the same time break off relation with ROC. This had set another milestone between PRC and the USA. During President George H. W. Bush and Clinton was on stage, there were Tiananmen Square protests and policy of Enlargement and Engagement which had made these two presidents having their own position in history. While Bush was on stage, he regarded PRC as a military competition until the 911. After that, PRC turned into military partner that made both sides cooperate.


    President Obama brought a different atmosphere to America; his speeches are always attractive to Americans. He was the first president to use the Internet to publicize his political ideas. The reason why Obama was elected as the president was that the economics of America was brought to its knees after Iraq War and Afghanistan War. At the same time, the education competitiveness of America was lower than developing countries. Hilary proposed “Smart Power” as the policy for U.S. Diplomacy, which changed the International image of the USA and also made the USA step on another road.


    In 2008, the Financial Crisis changed the International status of the U.S. This reflected that the outdated financial system couldn’t survive in the international community. On the other hand, Washington D.C. and Beijing is competitors of two different types of economic system. The rising of PRC’s soft power in Beijing
    Olympic also made a trial of America’s International status. This added an unpredictable future to the Relationship between U.S. and PRC. The interactive between Obama and Hu-Jing Tao could set a Milestone for the relationship on both sides. This became a great attention among International community. We can see from the Joint Declaration between U.S. and PRC that both sides have consensus on political and economic issues and also Taiwan issues. This basically benefits both sides to let International community realize their interactions.


    U.S. had achieved many consensuses through Strategy and Dialogue after Obama became president. This made both sides has closer relationship on economic cooperation. However, Secretary Hilary proposed the policy of Back to Asia had made PRC feel like being offended, especially military drill between U.S and South Korea, Diaoyu islands incident, Conflict of ASEAN and South China Sea. We can see from Hilary’s visit to Vietnam that U.S. took the Containment to PRC. Therefore we can see that America is both competing and cooperating with PRC. This showed that the hegemony status of the USA mustn’t be offended or threatened by other countries.
    顯示於類別:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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