|摘要: ||近十年來，能耐 (competency) 概念的發展已成為管理學界的“顯學”，然而，能耐概念的演進產生如下問題：（1）如何區別能耐、職能 (competence) 與核心能耐 (core competency) 概念？此三個相近用詞已造成學界與實務界對於這些概念的混淆，且至今尚未有相關文獻明確指出這些概念之差異性及其內涵；（2）在個人能耐與核心能耐共同創造組織持續性競爭優勢的論述下，策略性人力資源管理學者提出能耐概念在屬性上由情境獨立 (context-independence) 轉變為情境相依 (context-dependence)、本質上由追求工作績效轉變為組織持續性競爭優勢，然而尚未有相關文獻說明個人能耐如何形成、如何與組織核心能耐連結，以及如何創造組織持續性競爭優勢；（3）過去的研究對能耐的概念化著重於個人層次的探討，且訴求個人工作績效的提升，對於個人與組織關係之連結以創造組織持續性競爭優勢的研究甚少。由此可知，能耐概念仍處於模糊狀態，未釐清能耐概念則無法對能耐概念進行操作。|
有鑑於上述三問題，本研究依序提出三大架構以說明上述三問題。（1）本研究提出能耐、職能與核心能耐示意圖以釐清並重新認識此三概念；（2）提出能耐形成架構確立能耐具有情境相依之屬性，其本質為創造組織持續性競爭優勢，個人能耐與組織核心能耐之關連乃透過能耐碁石—共享價值觀、互信與相互投資連結，因而創造組織持續性競爭優勢；（3）依能耐形成架構隱含之個人—組織層次與價值性—獨特性構面建立能耐分類架構，包含：工作基礎能耐 (job-based competency)、個人基礎能耐(person-based competency)、策略基礎能耐 (strategy-based competency) 與價值基礎能耐 (value-based competence) 四類。藉由實務案例比對結果說明能耐如何為組織帶來持續性競爭優勢，並說明能耐分類架構在實務上已獲得實踐，對能耐概念的操作化產生貢獻並提出管理意涵。
In the last decade, the concept of competency has been a “buzz word” in management field. The evolution of competency has caused three questions. First, how can we distinguish competency, competence and core competency? These similar terms have generated a complex phenomenon and needed to be clarified. Second, under the argument that employee competency and organizational core competency collectively create sustained competitive advantage, Strategic Human Resource Management scholars proposed that the attribute of competency should transfer from context-independence to context-dependence, and the essence of competency should change from pursuing job performance to organization’s sustained competitive advantage. However, few studies addressed how employee competency to be created, relate to core competency, and create sustained competitive advantage. Third, regarding the typological framwork of competency, past researches focused more on individual-level conceptualizations in relation to job performance than on the linkage between individual- and organization-level competencies in relation to organizational peformance. These unresolved areas have inhibited the theoretical development of competency concept.
In this regard, this thesis proposes three conceptual frameworks to answer the aforementioned three questions. The conceptual framework of the relations among competency, competence, and core competence helps clarifiy and re-recognize the concepts of competency, competence, and core competency. The framework of competency formation shows that the attribute of employee competency is context-dependence and its essence is to pursue an organization’s sustained competitive advantage. Shared values, mutual trust, and mutual investment are the cornerstones relating employee competency to organizational core competency, collectively creating organizations’ sustained competitive advanatage. Based on the dimensions of individual-organization and value-uniqueness derived from the framework of competency formation, a typological framwork of competency is proposed, including job-based competency, person-based competency, strategy-based competency and value-based competency. Comparing the conceptual framework of competency formation and the typological framework of competency with a practical case derives the contributions and implications to the conceptualization of competency.