本論文對米蘭昆德拉《生命中不能承受之輕》及其他作品的閱讀在於發掘人對於這個充滿壓迫的世界應如何調適，而不必轉向社會道德的常態做為依歸。主角湯馬斯努力對這個似乎沒有意義的世界做出回應，並思考如何賦與其意義。本論文第一章簡短探討存在主義思潮的主要主題及其與昆德拉作品理解之關係。昆德拉與存在主義者相信這個世界規範但不完全限制人之存在。第二章則主要以精神分析的觀點閱讀昆德拉。人與這個世界、與他者之間的關係在於其主體位置。孩童出生於充滿語言的世界，而這些語言的存在是先於其出生的。為了表達其願望，孩童必須學習父母(他者)的語言。在探討過角色的基本幻想後，本論文強調超我的控制如何主宰米蘭昆德拉《生命中不能承受之輕》作品中的世界。第三章將致力於闡明昆德拉及其角色的世界觀。在認識超我及憤世嫉俗的幻滅後，人應能自由行動並負起全責，而不假於社會規範。 The reading of Milan Kundera’s The Unbearable Lightness of Being, as well as other works, aims at discovering how man should adjust himself to the oppressive world without referring to the social, ethical norms. The protagonist Tomas is striving to respond to the world that seems meaningless and to ponder on how to bestow the world with new meaning. Chapter one briefly discusses the major themes of Existentialist thinking and how they are related to the reading of Kundera’s works. Kundera, as well as Existentialists, believes that the world conditions rather than limits man’s existence. Chapter two consists mainly of the reading of Kundera from psychoanalytic perspective. Man’s relation to the world and to others depends on his subject position. Children are all born into a world of language that precedes their birth. In order to express their wishes, they are bound to learn their parents’ (the Other’s) language. Their wishes are molded by the process. They eventually learn to respond to the Other through fantasy. After discussing the fundamental fantasy of each character, the thesis emphasises on how the superego imperative dominates the world of Kundera’s The Unbearable Lightness of Being. Chapter three is devoted to the world view of Kundera and his characters. While recognizing the disillusionments of cynicism and the superego, man should be able to act freely and take full responsibility without resorting to the social norms.