|Abstract: || 現今日本正處於少子高齡化環境中，當老年人口佔總人口比重亦趨增加的同時，出生率低落，勞動人口也隨之大受影響。然而，影響一個國家經濟發展要素有三，人口（勞動力）、技術（生產力）、資金，這些要素的改變需要較長之時間，其中「技術的提昇」與「資金的累積」並非一朝一夕可達成。關於提高勞動力之方面，諸如，「生育率的提高」及「勞動年齡的延後」等，亦非短期可改善。當男性勞動已成常態同時,探討女性勞動問題以提升國家整體就業率為相當重要性課題。|
Population aging is one of the most significant demographic characteristics of Japan due to its declining birth rate. While senior citizen population to total population increases, along with declining birth rate, the labor force of a country is under a huge impact from the demographic factors. There are three main factors influencing the economic development of a country: population (labor force), technology (productivity), and capital; however, to have all three main factors be in place for a country is a long-term investment. Among the three main factors, “Improving technology/training/skill training” and “Raising capital” cannot be accomplished in short run. On the other hand, it is also a long-term plan for the country to improve the number of labor force by increasing birth rate and by raising retirement age. When male population has been considered the main labor force of a country historically, the discussion about the issues among female labor force has become a factor in influencing the number of total working population of a country.
In this paper, I first discuss about the current female employment situation and the impacts of female labor force from different perspectives (political, economic, business, technology, social and cultural environment) in understanding how the external factors influence the working environment and status of female labor force. Then, I further discuss about the supply of female current labor force, trying to find out what causes most of the married women refuse to pursue a full-time or a more challenging career.
In this research, a survey is conducted in which the questions are designed to analyze women’s working attitude and their ideology towards career. Various factors (marital status, age, education level, and areas) are considered variables that influence women’s responses towards their jobs. After gathering data, I further compare different results. The results of the study show that women are more willing to work after marriage; on the other hand, women living in metropolitan areas are uncertain about working after getting married although there are more career opportunities in cities. Overall, instead of being a full time housewife, married women in Japan would choose to keep their jobs although they consider families more important than career.
At last, aiming for solutions of issues of women labor force systems and the ideology of women labor force, this paper presents suggestions and recommendations.