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    Title: 日本女性の結婚後の再就職に関する研究
    Other Titles: 日本女性婚後再就職研究
    Reemployment studies of Japanese women after marriage
    Authors: 郭沛琳;Kuo, Pei-Lin
    Contributors: 淡江大學亞洲研究所碩士班
    洪振義;Hong, Cheng-Yih
    Keywords: 人口減少;少子高齡化;勞動力人口;經濟成長;population aging;declining birth rate;Working Population;Economic Development;高齢少子化;労働力人口;経済成長
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2012-06-21 06:27:41 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   現今日本正處於少子高齡化環境中,當老年人口佔總人口比重亦趨增加的同時,出生率低落,勞動人口也隨之大受影響。然而,影響一個國家經濟發展要素有三,人口(勞動力)、技術(生產力)、資金,這些要素的改變需要較長之時間,其中「技術的提昇」與「資金的累積」並非一朝一夕可達成。關於提高勞動力之方面,諸如,「生育率的提高」及「勞動年齡的延後」等,亦非短期可改善。當男性勞動已成常態同時,探討女性勞動問題以提升國家整體就業率為相當重要性課題。
      首先,考慮各種環境因素之影響下,諸如,政治、經濟、企業、技術、社會、文化等因素,從勞動需求層面來探究女性就業之現況與影響,即從外在環境層面來了解女性就業的優勢及劣勢。再者,從女性婚後再就業選擇方面,分析多數者為何選擇非正規職務之原因,來探討女性勞動供給方面的現狀。
      在參考相關文獻後,為實際了解女性對於工作的態度及其意識形態,於不同變數之考慮下,諸如,婚姻狀況、年齡、學歷、地域等,所造成之不同的影響,於此,透過問卷調查及調查結果分析,進而理解其成因。調查結果顯示,對於婚後工作意願程度,已婚者較未婚者高。亦顯示,居住大都市之未婚女性,儘管其就業機會較居住地方者多,但對於婚後是否工作之意願不甚明確。整體上顯示,日本女性於婚後,相較於當家庭主婦,選擇在職場上保有一份工作的意願相對較高。另一方面,比起工作,日本女性更重視家庭。
      最後,於經濟環境影響企業雇用制度之現況下,針對女性勞動制度層面與女性勞動意識之相關議題上,提出建言及未來展望。
     Population aging is one of the most significant demographic characteristics of Japan due to its declining birth rate. While senior citizen population to total population increases, along with declining birth rate, the labor force of a country is under a huge impact from the demographic factors. There are three main factors influencing the economic development of a country: population (labor force), technology (productivity), and capital; however, to have all three main factors be in place for a country is a long-term investment. Among the three main factors, “Improving technology/training/skill training” and “Raising capital” cannot be accomplished in short run. On the other hand, it is also a long-term plan for the country to improve the number of labor force by increasing birth rate and by raising retirement age. When male population has been considered the main labor force of a country historically, the discussion about the issues among female labor force has become a factor in influencing the number of total working population of a country.
     In this paper, I first discuss about the current female employment situation and the impacts of female labor force from different perspectives (political, economic, business, technology, social and cultural environment) in understanding how the external factors influence the working environment and status of female labor force. Then, I further discuss about the supply of female current labor force, trying to find out what causes most of the married women refuse to pursue a full-time or a more challenging career.
     In this research, a survey is conducted in which the questions are designed to analyze women’s working attitude and their ideology towards career. Various factors (marital status, age, education level, and areas) are considered variables that influence women’s responses towards their jobs. After gathering data, I further compare different results. The results of the study show that women are more willing to work after marriage; on the other hand, women living in metropolitan areas are uncertain about working after getting married although there are more career opportunities in cities. Overall, instead of being a full time housewife, married women in Japan would choose to keep their jobs although they consider families more important than career.
     At last, aiming for solutions of issues of women labor force systems and the ideology of women labor force, this paper presents suggestions and recommendations.
    Appears in Collections:[亞洲研究所] 學位論文

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