從1960年代開始，日本與台灣相繼經歷經濟快速成長期，除了人均所得成長之外，人民的飲食習慣也出現變化。本論文將以糧食消費量所得彈性值的觀念分析日本和台灣人民飲食消費性向的變化，並以產業關聯分析觀察兩國的食品產業的供給結構變化，從供需變化中理解兩國所面對的糧食問題。 經過計算兩國的糧食消費量所得彈性值後，得知兩國人民皆從經濟快速成長期開始減少對米食的偏好，轉而消費小麥製品、肉類及乳製品，呈現飲食生活洋化的現象。其中，日本人民對肉類消費的偏好較顯著，而台灣人民在飲食生活洋化的過程中，對水果的消費偏好依舊不減，兩國人民的消費性向各有特色。 以產業關聯分析食品供給結構後，可知稻米在日、台的總和進口依存度最低，是最不需依賴海外進口的食品，但其需求卻逐漸減少。相對的，日本的屠宰生肉及台灣的雜糧農作物最需要經由海外進口來滿足國內需求，兩者皆為飲食生活洋化導致需求增加的食品。除此之外，現代飲食生活的「多樣化」及「簡便化」使加工食品及外食的需求增加，兩者也將以直接及間接的方式促進進口食品的增加。 根據以上分析，飲食生活改變使兩國人民對海外食品的需求增加，是使糧食自給率下降的根本原因。若日本能確保以肉品為主的進口通路，台灣能確保以雜糧農作物為主的進口通路，並能順從消費者的飲食習慣來調整國內的農業生產結構以維持農地利用，仍能有效的控制糧食安全問題。 The study used income elasticity of demand to analyze the relationship between economic growth and the change of Japanese and Taiwanese dietary life. In addition, we investigated the supply structure of food industry in both countries by input-output analysis to understand food security problems in Japan and in Taiwan. After calculating income elasticity of demand of both countries, the result shows that Japanese and Taiwanese dietary life has been westernized, the preference of rice has been reducing and the consumption of wheat, meat, milk and dairy products has been increasing. According to the calculation, Japanese people''s preference for meat consumption is more significant. By input-output analysis, it shows that rice almost do not need to rely on overseas import. In contrast, slaughtering in Japan and cereals except rice in Taiwan most need to rely on overseas import to meet demand. In addition, “diversification” and “simplification” in modern dietary life have been increasing demand for processed foods and food-service industry, and it direct and indirect promotes increasing in imported food. According to this study, the change of dietary life in Japan and Taiwan elevated overseas demand for food, it is the root cause of reducing food self-sufficiency ratio. If Japan and Taiwan can assure the import approach of food which they lack, and can adjust the agricultural production structure with the change of dietary life, both countries will control the food security problems effectively.